Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Science; Rainforests and Earth The Tropical Rainfo Essay Example For Students

Science; Rainforests and Earth The Tropical Rainfo Essay Science; Rainforests and Earth The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat fragmentation. Another topic being discussed is the many different types of rainforest species and their uniqueness from the rest of the world. First, I will discuss the many species of rare and exotic animals, Native to the Rainforest. Tropical Rainforests are home to many of the strangest looking and most beautiful, largest and smallest, most dangerous and least frightening, loudest and quietest animals on earth. There are many types of animals that make their homes in the rainforest some of them include: jaguars, toucans, parrots, gorillas, and tarantulas. There are so many fascinating animals in tropical rainforest that millions have not even identified yet. In fact, about half of the worlds species have not even been identified yet. But sadly, an average of 35 species of rainforest animals are becoming extinct every day. So many species of animals live in the rainforest than any other parts of the world because rainforests are believed to be the oldest ecosystem on earth. Some forests in southeast Asia have been around for at least 100 million years, ever since the dinosaurs have roamed the earth. During the ice ages, the last of which occurred about 10,000 years ago, the frozen areas of the North and South Poles spread over much of the earth, causing huge numbers of extinctions. But the giant freeze did not reach many tropical rainforests. Therefore, these plants and animals could continue to evolve, developing into the most diverse and complex ecosystems on earth. The nearly perfect conditions for life also help contribute to the great number of species. With temperatures constant at about 75-80 degrees Fahrenheit the whole year, the animals dont have to worry about freezing during the cold winters or finding hot shade in the summers. They rarely have to search for water, as rain falls almost every day in tropical rainforests. Some rainforest species have populations that number in the millions. Other species consist of only a few dozen individuals. Living in limited areas, most of these species are found nowhere else on earth. For example, the maues marmoset, a species of monkey, wasnt discovered until recently. Its entire tiny population lives within a few square miles in the Amazon rainforest. This species of monkey is so small that it could fit into a persons hand! In a rainforest, it is difficult to see many things other than the millions of insects creeping and crawling around in every layer of the forest. Scientists estimate that there are more than 50 million different species of invertebrates living in rainforests. A biologist researching the rainforest found 50 different of ants on a single tree in Peru! A few hours of poking around in a rainforest would produce several insects unknown to science. The constant search for food , water, sunlight and space is a 24-hour pushing and shoving match. With this fierce competition, it is amazing that that so many species of animals can all live together. But this is actually the cause of the huge number of the different species. The main secret lies in the ability of many animals to adapt to eating a specific plant or animal, which few other species are able to eat. .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce , .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .postImageUrl , .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce , .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce:hover , .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce:visited , .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce:active { border:0!important; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce:active , .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u74d011e17d2bce25b3100850f4554cce:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: F.O.R. Fitness Business Plan Essay An example of such adaptations would be the big beaks of the toucans and parrots. Their beaks give them a great advantage over other birds with smaller beaks. The fruits and nuts from many trees have evolved with a tough shell to protect them from predators. In turn toucans and parrots developed large, strong beaks, which serves as a nutcracker and provides them with many tasty meals. Many animal species have developed relationships with each other that benefit both species. Birds and mammal species love to eat .

Thursday, November 28, 2019

International Institutions Role in Prevention of War

Introduction This assignment is a discussion on the topic of international institutions’ role in prevention of war. The discussion is based on question four â€Å"Major war will not occur in the future because the international community has created a set of international institutions that make it impossible â€Å".Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on International Institutions’ Role in Prevention of War specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the institutions and concepts that have been developed by the international community to avert a major war in the future include the United Nations (UN), pursuit of global justice, the concept of globalization, idealism, liberalism, constructivism, international law and the universal declarations of human rights. Discussion United Nations and Prevention of War The UN is an international organization which brings member states together in a cooperation to achieve economic, social and political progress as well as respect for human rights through adherence to internal law. The UN is also concerned with maintenance of peace in the world. The UN was formed in 1945 after the Second World War, to replace its predecessor, the League of Nations, which was unable to prevent the Second World War. The UN was therefore formed with the main objective of preventing wars between states through negotiations, dialogue and sometimes military force. The current UN secretary general is Ban Ki- Moon from South Korea. The UN is governed by what is referred to as the UN charter. The charter contains various provisions and guidelines regarding economy, politics, human rights, international law and justice system. The Security Council is the organ of UN which deals with issues of maintenance of peace and prevention of wars in the world. It ensures that any threat to peace is identified as early as possible, so that the international community may interve ne to bring dialogue between the conflicting parties. Once there is a war, the UN deploys its troops in the affected nation(s), as the last option to restore peace. The UN also focuses on the factors which may compromise peace within a country or between nations. For instance, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) was formed mainly to promote development in poor countries, with the philosophy that poverty and lack of development are potential sources of ethnic or political violence within a nation or between nations. Other organizations affiliated to the UN are the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). All these institutions and programs are aimed at empowering people with education and the civilization needed to respect each other as well as to take care of the environment.Advertising Looking for research paper on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United Nations also adopted the universal declaration of human rights in 1948, which outlines human rights which must be respected by any government in the world. Any government which violates these rights may be subjected to international law and international justice system, based on the Rome statute which forms the International Criminal Court (ICC). The ICC is mandated with dealing with cases of genocide or massive abuse of human rights. Examples of some trials which have taken place in the court are the cases for former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Liberia. The international law and the ICC therefore act as a check against acts of aggression or mass atrocities within nation(s). UN also addresses the issue of smuggling of firearms, which may result to armed conflict within a nation or between nations. Countries which violate the UN charter or those which do not promote disarmament may be slapped with economic sanctions. Pursuit of Global Jus tice This is a politically derived philosophy which is formed on the assumption that the world is generally unjust and unfair. What this means is that the world is full of biases when it comes to matters of justice in the distribution of power, economic resources and opportunities. Generally, the injustice is fuelled by the politics of domination between nations of the world whereby the rich deny the poor justice in various sectors. In terms of social relationships, the rich people are known to manipulate the process of justice in their favor thus making the poor unable to get justice because they cannot afford to purchase it. The pursuance of global justice by the international community has ensured that nations of the world are treated with the respect they deserve. Nations also are able to resolve disagreements through international law and institutions. The Concept of Globalization Globalization can be defined as the minimization of the differences between people of the world an d the maximization of their similarities through interactions, cooperation and communication. During the pre-world war period, the world was characterized by minimal interaction, communication, cross-border movements and language homogeneity. However, after the world war, this situation changed. The changes were mainly triggered by the desire for nations of the world to unite in various spheres of development mainly the economy, education, employment, the environment and governance (Beck 45). Idealism In international relations and foreign policy, idealism is a political philosophy which entails the advancement of a particular ideology (political, social or economic) both at home and abroad, with a view of promoting and safeguarding the interests of citizens of a county and those of citizens in other countries in regard to that issue. Examples include the fight against poverty, HIV/AIDS and advocacy for democracy instead of dictatorship or authoritarianism as well as safeguarding of human rights.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on International Institutions’ Role in Prevention of War specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Liberalism This is the idea that nations of the world relate not only for political power and economic purposes but also for cultural purposes. With liberalism therefore, the relationship between states is characterised by a lot of cooperation in various aspects like in trade and cultural exchange. Liberalism also claims that nations which interact in trade and cultural exchange rarely make war and these acts as an incentive to international peace. Constructivism This is the augment that international relations are based on ideas but not on material things like wealth creation or cultural exchange. Countries which have similar ideologies are therefore more likely to relate or interact with each other than those which have different ideologies. According to construc tivists, the interaction between states is influenced by collective values, social identities and culture. The constructivist approach therefore does not see any anarchy between nations and also blames realism and liberalism for failing to predict the end of the cold war. International Law International law refers to the set of laws or principles which govern the relationships between sovereign states (Fichtelberg 41). It was initially formed to govern the manner in which nation states related to each other with a view of improving their relationships in regard to specific issues. International law initially took the form of treaties and agreements between states, which were either bilateral or multilateral. The treaties were on issues like trade, agriculture and other forms of cooperation between the signatories of the treaties. The world has been changing which has led to the emergence of a new international system whereby states interact more frequently than before. Globalization , terrorism and ethnic conflicts have been on the rise in the recent years (Scott 214). This has led to the adjustment of international law to take care of the issues in the new international system and how states treat their own citizens. One of the ways in which international law has been changed is in regard to the issue of human rights. International law initially did not interfere with internal affairs of sovereign states and how states treated their own citizens. But with the rising cases of atrocities committed by governments to their citizens, international law has been widened in scope to address the issue of crime against humanity based on the universal declaration of human rights, which makes it illegal for any government to violate the so called civil and political liberties of its citizens (Darraj 92).Advertising Looking for research paper on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The issue of environment has also made international law to be widened in scope to include environmental protection. This is mainly due to climate change which leads to global warming. Several treaties have been formed to address the issue of climate change. Examples include the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Kyoto protocol on climate change, the United Nations convention to combat desertification and the Copenhagen talks (Deke 76). Universal Declarations of Human Rights Every human being is endowed with certain inalienable rights and entitlements. These rights and entitlements exist as shared norms of human moralities and natural rights. The rights and entitlements underscore the importance of treating all human beings with dignity, fairness and equality irrespective of their cultural backgrounds. These rights and entitlements are supported by strong reasons and legal basis at national and international levels. Human rights ideas emerged after the Seco nd World War when the universal declaration of human rights was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948. Human rights laws to some extend remain credible as a reflection of a global commitment to human rights. Each state has the obligation to protect human rights for its citizens (Paul 8). Works Cited Beck, Ulrich. What is globalization? Oxford: Polity Press, 2000.45.Print. Darraj, Sussan. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Paris: Infobase Publishing, 2010.92.Print. Deke, Oliver. Environmental Policy Instruments for Conserving Global Biodiversity Volume 339 of Kieler Studien. Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.76.Print. Fichtelberg, Aaron. Law at the Vanishing Point: A Philosophical Analysis of International Law. Farnham GU9 7PT: Ashgate Publishing, 2008.41.Print. Paul, Guchteneire. Democracy and Human Rights in Multicultural Societies. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing., 2007. 8. Print. Scott, Gregory. 21 Debated: Issues in World Politics. Kingsway: Longman Publishers, 2002.214.Print. This research paper on International Institutions’ Role in Prevention of War was written and submitted by user Jayson W. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Lateral Sands Managerial Operation and Challenges Therein †Business

Lateral Sands Managerial Operation and Challenges Therein – Business Free Online Research Papers Lateral Sands Managerial Operation and Challenges Therein Business Executive Summary: Scott Goodheart, The CEO of Lateral Sands was interviewed in regard to managerial operations within the company. With much experience under his belt he was able to explain many intricacies of the present and future of the company. Lateral Sands, an engineering services company, has been in operation for approximately 5 years and have reached a stable point where enough business is supporting the company. Although there are always challenges to be overcome, they are planning to expand to meet future market needs. Expansion opened many doors and mindset that need to be considered. Scott, having done much research in the area has contemplated opening a research centre in India. After much consideration, Scott and his upper level management, they plan to have the centre operational by the end of next year. The expansion will enable most of the ‘grunt’ work to be done via cheaper Indian engineering and will enable higher-level engineering and project management to be effectively utilized. Being the CEO of the company, Scott has had to contemplate the pros and cons of this expansion. From our conversations, I feel that they may expand from a services company and jump into product manufacturing. Although I do not foresee it in the immediate future, I think it is very much a possibility. Scott manages the business in a very peculiar way. By keeping his employee base as happy as possible (within reason of course) and by treating them as equals with encouragement on their self-management, he is able to successfully operate. By keeping his employees happy, he is able to extend the time they stay with Lateral Sands, and in turn this increases productivity (people know each other and work well together) and efficiency. Overall, the environment he tries to create is his way of creating boundaries while encouraging innovation. Introduction Lateral Sands, an engineering services company, founded in 1999 by a group of highly experienced professionals in hardware, software and technology management, was the company of my choice for this case study. Scott Goodheart, as depicted in Figure 1, is the Chief Executive Officer for the company and the interviewee. A BEc and MBA graduate has led to an extensive financial and project management background, with experience ranging from corporate banking (NAB – National Australia Bank) and smaller corporate consultancies. Scott considers himself a jack-of-all-trades but doesn’t have the engineering background (no technical background). Tony Costa is the 2nd in charge at Lateral Sands. He is in control of project management and markets the business, as it needs to be done from a technical point of view. Any other really experienced engineers donate 20% of their time to different managerial tasks. In California, the once had a senior person who did things specifically, bu t the ridiculous amounts of money they were paying (American Dollars) meant they had to bring him back down and now they only use him when they need him. Figure 1 – Scott Goodheart CEO Lateral Sands Lateral Sands has its corporate head office here in Perth, with a sales office in California as shown in Figure 2. Even though the company consists of more than 20 people (including California), I would consider it a medium sized business due to the size of the projects (monetary values) that are involved. As the company has established itself quite well over its 5 year operating time, a number of changes have become possibilities for future expansion. As with any company, there are a number of challenges to be overcome for the construction of a successful business. Lateral Sands had had a fairly short operational life, but has still been faced with many difficulties internally and externally. The macro and micro issues in the specific industry will be analysed, as well as their earlier challenges, and how knowledge and past experiences has influenced decision-making. Figure 2 – Lateral Sands Current Global Locations Lateral Sands has some macro and micro issues (challenges) that are dictating how the business should be operated at present. There location on Earth has led to much difficulty in marketing the business and recruiting personnel. The market success of the business in the Silicon Valley is dependent on the people they need to recruit and integrate into their operations. Time differences are also an issue between America and Australia. The contemplation of opening a research department in India or any other cheaper area is also ‘on the books’. Micro issues include their project managing setup and abilities – how the business runs for a project. Staff happiness is also a critical factor in the future affluence of the company. Scott sees staff as the most valuable asset Lateral Sands has. As they are the biggest cost the company has at present, their happiness and integration is the company’s operational efficiency and source of income. These plus more issues will be looked at in more depth during this case study. During the interview with Scott, we discussed much about how he feels management and employees should interact. Although I agree with his methods at present, with future growth of the company and expansion, new hierarchies will need to be established for correct business functionality. Analysis There are many areas of interest that I could investigate for this assignment. The first I will look at is staff. Scott Goodheart stressed more and more just how valuable staff members are at Lateral Sands. The have recently relocated the company from West Perth to Subiaco. He feels that Subiaco has much more to offer his employees in comparison to West Perth. The culture and life within Subiaco is the environment he is looking for. Cafes and restaurants, theatre and social hubs are the environment he would like to have close to his working environment. The signing of a 3-year lease shows just how much he believes his employees can benefit from Subiaco in comparison to West Perth. He very much wants a very broad skilled employee, and the sociality of Subiaco enables engineers to become less robotic and more human. Subiaco is not a cheap suburb to house a business, and if cost effectiveness were the main issue of relocation then Balcatta or Tech Park (Curtin area) would be more approp riate. company recruitment. As I mentioned earlier, staff are the biggest overhead that Lateral Sands has at present. Reducing the number of non-income producing staff and the quality of staff that are kept can dramatically increase profitability for the business. Scott mentioned that Lateral Sands ability to recruit in Australia is becoming a huge problem. They are after experienced hardware designers, which are nowhere to be found. The solution to this problem has been the hiring of students to fill these spots. Although not experienced, with correct integration a successful employee can be moulded to suit the company’s needs. Training then becomes the main issue for student recruitment. A benefit to Lateral Sands from my point of view would be the mixture of young and older engineers. To broaden and diversify your workforce can (if managed correctly) be better overall for the business. A younger engineer will (more likely) stay in the business for a long time, and with the aid and shared experience of the more experienced, older engineers; future experienced engineers can be developed. When recruiting Scott takes much consideration into the abilities of potential employees and how they will integrate into the business. He very much encourages self-management (within boundaries of the company) and innovation. Engineers at Lateral Sands directly converse with their clientele in the Silicon Valley or elsewhere. Because of this all the engineering employees need to have very good interpersonal skills. Scott mentioned how different cultural backgrounds make communication between nations more fragile but not impossible. Any wrong moves can easily lead to clientele alienation etc and can become a big problem when the company tries to acquire more business in the future. Another challenge for Lateral Sands is its remote location. Being based in Perth and having clientele worldwide (mostly in the Silicon Valley) has lead to the opening of the Californian sales office. The time differences are a constant challenge for the company as in the Silicon Valley they tend to work late and finish later. So from about 9am till noon in Perth they are able to contact their clients, which is 4pm – 8pm in California. This limited contact time only hinders but does not stop perfect communication and they have had little problems with the difference due to correct project managing. Communication and non-documentation has lead to some rather sticky situations for Lateral Sands. Some of the management situations in other companies (e.g. 60 employees) have been quite shocking for Scott. These situations have been quite frenetic and to quote Scott – â€Å"its like an organism that has just grown very, very quickly and is almost out of control. Its organised chaos and they do work towards an endpoint, and quite often we are trying to help them with their project management, verification of documentation or even incorrect specs.† These are all serious issues for a services company as with Lateral Sands. The fact that they are contracted to do a specific task in a certain time does not get helped by incorrect specifications or documentation errors or the lack there of. The job is not made impossible with errors but only more time and fund consuming then originally estimated. Remote marketing is a serious problem, which only seems to get harder. Scott has had to market Lateral Sands to Americans and as he puts it they always want to see physical evidence that the company has handled the task previously. The difficulty comes in convincing the Americans that they can port other knowledge across and apply it to a project successfully. The 100% success rate on projects (as mentioned on their website) is a fact that would be a valuable marketing tool when dealing with the Americans. He also mentions that we are culturally different to the Americans in the way that we are educated. We are adaptive and creative, and effective sidestepping has been needed in the past. Some convincing and a good track record have won over some American companies to hire Lateral Sands and the fact that they are cheaper (Australian Dollars) doesn’t hurt much either. Also to organise marketing it requires that somebody be there (in America). Also, choosing marketing strategies and amounts to spend is quite difficult. A marketing strategy for Lateral Sands could be advertising, word of mouth, or to â€Å"press the flesh† (face to face to make them comfortable with Lateral Sands and the concept of who we are and what we offer). Either way it takes people to be in America and to pay Americans in $US, becomes very costly ($US and living in the Silicon Valley is expensive and they expect a little more). As the other option, Scott could pay an Australian to fly over there to organise marketing. I asked Scott if he would consider hiring an Indian worker (in the future Indian research centre they plan on starting). He responded very abruptly with a no. The Perth office will handle most issues and the Indian centre will only be for research purposes due to the low costs involved. Lateral Sands is a services business as I mentioned earlier. Scott mentioned that they have considered expanding into manufacturing actual products. However this would lead to stock control etc issues that they at present don’t really have anything to do with. Macro-wise they just focus on getting the money in and keeping employees happy. He estimated that 70% of the overhead at Lateral Sands is staffing costs. He also gave an example that if they had a 10 Million turnover then approximately 7 Million would be outgoings. But if they went down the Indian isle, then recruitment becomes a major expense. For example he mentioned India, where the turnover of employees approximates to about one third of your workforce every twelve months. A micro issue or challenge the company faces in the future and currently is the main point of how you are managing you projects and you staff. He looks at the individual and the company cumulatively as a group. The same goes for when dealing with a client as an individual and collectively. Scott suggests that is really the trick involved with the services business, and it is this reason why managing a services company or in the way Scott manages Lateral Sands becomes less complex. The biggest management decision for the company at present but looking towards the future is expansion worldwide. He and upper level management have to decide the viability of expanding into a production and services company. Venture capitalists are hesitant about financing a large jump like that. It is not very often that a services company can successfully jump into a products business. There will be problems left right and centre. There will have to be a different technology strategy (e.g. research in In dia etc), there will be different expectations of salaries, different amounts of hours to be worked, and then other issues like documentations issues of their own. Basically a total company management restructuring would be in order. Their expansion into India could be the first step in that direction. Scott mentioned that other companies they deal with say venture capitalists are now demanding that at least some of the design process is done offshore (India or Romania where its cheaper). A lot of money will be invested into research, and Scott mentioned that architecturally if they can handle it here (Perth) and get the grunt work done in India (or a cheaper company of your choice) then why wouldn’t you? I agreed with most of what Scott had mentioned and he portrayed the image that he had done much research into the expansion of Lateral Sands. Scott vented to us, some issues flowing through his mind about expansion into India. Some pros and cons about the expansion were mentioned to David and I. India is an old colonial ex British enclave with similarities between code of laws and company structuring. Being able to intricately understand the operations within the country of expansion is critical. Cons for the expansion had also been mentioned. If expanding into Bangalore (Figure 3), there are many infrastructure problems; traffic is a major problem, power outages very often (3-4hrs between generally). With all this in mind and the very emotive subject of company expansion I will quote directly from Scott his feeling on expansion. â€Å"There is a lot of compelling evidence for us not to be in Bangalore, but I couldn’t give a rat’s arse about where we are as long as it’s cheap!† Figure 3 – Bangalore the capital of Karnataka, India Conclusions/Summary Lateral Sands is about to jump into a new, exciting era that would be great to become a part of. The successes and failures of the business are going to be greatly affected by the managerial decisions made within the next couple of years. Presently they are facing challenges in relation to obtaining business and new clientele. Market changes are forcing them to expand into India to meet current cost effectiveness. By opening a research centre of around 40 people (the same as 15 Australian wages) there are many possibilities of expansion into the production industry and not just the services industry. Restructuring of the company will have to take place before changing industries, let alone acquiring the finance necessary to establish a firm foothold in the industry. However, Scott is quite confident that the company as a whole, with the employees that have been trained and grown with the company, will be able to overcome any obstacle they may encounter. Financial withdrawal of a project by another company has only been an issue once for Scott, but once again he is quite confident they will bounce back again. The issue of remote marketing appears that it will always be of concern due to the remote location of Perth. If I were to have owned Lateral Sands I most likely would have established a similar setup to what they have at present. The main, well established head office in a fairly cheap area to operate in (namely Perth) and sales office in any place where new business is a high possibility (Silicon Valley). I would see that the trick is to have the head office in a stable country where you are economically and politically safe, and expand (or venture if you will) into any areas of immediate or future benefit to the company. India’s advancement technologically has been a fast one, and moving to join in the growth may or may not be a wise move at present, but the cost benefit ratio seems fairly stable at present, even with natural disasters becoming more and more frequent in the world today. Scott’s viewpoints on recruitment and employee relationships are quite understandable. If in his position, I would employ a similar technique. Staff turnover is always a problem for a stable, more in depth business as with engineering. As the skill needed for a particular task or jobs are developed over time, a new recruit is unable to perform at the level a CEO would wish (at least not straight away). By appealing to his staff members needs, he is able to create a more stable working environment. Scott believes that a workers environment can dictate his/her actions in today’s world, and having had some experience with non-conformist employees his experience and strict recruiting shows this to be a fact. A friendly, peaceful, hard-working and innovative workspace is the final result. Research Papers on Lateral Sands Managerial Operation and Challenges Therein - BusinessAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaThe Project Managment Office SystemMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesOpen Architechture a white paperBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductGenetic EngineeringPETSTEL analysis of IndiaResearch Process Part One

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Events Marketing Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Events Marketing Management - Assignment Example The main purpose of this paper is to write a Marketing Plan and Plan Report for a launch event of a new Master programme in Events Marketing Management. The event shall take place on London Metropolitan University premises in June 2006. The underlying assumption is that there will be launch of the programme in June 2006, and the main goal of promotion marketing plan is to make positive public opinion and awareness towards Programme launch by this date. The London Metropolitan University needs to implement an integrated marketing plan to achieve a level of 100% enrolment at the Course during its first year, in order to do this it need to strategically categorise the potential students into various segmented areas. Consideration also needs to be given to the large number of students who have not decided on whether they want to join the Course. The plan advises what methods need to be used along will how they need to be implemented to obtain the overall objectives of the plan. The theoretical part or this paper will analyse the plan written in terms of academic marketing theory. Following are the key terms and concepts explained; they could be found over marketing plan in order of appearance. The main distinction of this marketing plan is in its core objective - promotion and marketing of new Master's programme. Since it is not a tangible product or service, some characteristic points will be considered further. Context Analysis determines the overall strategic direction, it must be a "comprehensive and through analysis of the background situation"1, therefore consideration must be given to the market, customer, company (internal) and general environment (external) contexts. 2 It examines the 'marketplace and the company's preferred overall approach to achieving its objectives in the light of market conditions and competitor behaviour"3. . Promotional Objectives These are specific 'goals' that need to be achieved during the timescale of the overall plan. It is important that these 'goals' are clearly understood and accepted by everybody involved. All of these 'goals' need to be measurable in order for the organisation to establish whether they have achieved the overall goal. The 'SMART' objectives are a set of guidelines to assist in measuring goals.4 (Appendix 1) Corporate Objectives The corporate objective is normally included within the mission -statement and normally stems from the purpose of the organisation. Marketing Objectives "Marketing communication objectives are specific communications tasks to be achieved among a defined audience to a defined extent and within a specific time frame" Communication Objectives should "Enhance the image or reputation of a product or where promotional efforts are seen as a

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Six Sigma Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Six Sigma - Essay Example For example GE announced in 1998 that it had managed to save some $350 million as a result of Six Sigma initiatives. Subsequently this figure eventually reached more than $1 billion. (Dusharme, 2001) However, not all companies utilising Six Sigma have ended up saving money or making substantial gains. Fortune 500 reported that ninety one percent of fifty eight large companies that established Six Sigma regimes have been trailing the S&P 500 index ever since. (Betsy, 2006) One major reason for this phenomenon is that Six Sigma is less understood and more employed in businesses often in ways that make little or no sense. In essence, Six Sigma is a statistical technique and the lack of data, its analysis, proper presentation and follow up can all lead up to its demise. Amongst other things attempted through Six Sigma, RCA (Root Cause Analysis) is a major application. The contention behind RCA is to locate and subsequently rectify problems in a business operation. However, the applicatio n of Six Sigma to RCA in inappropriate methods often causes less than desirable outcomes. Often Six Sigma is used to â€Å"create† evidence in order to justify some kind of process or business hypothesis. This text attempts to delineate clearly defined methods to tackle Six Sigma along with RCA within a lean approach. The external customer’s perspective as well as the VOP (Voice of Process) perspective will be utilised to explain the application of lean Six Sigma to RCA. Differentiating the VoC and the VoP Approaches Any business process will always possess an external customer who receives the finished good. If the business process spectrum consists of multiple processing steps then the external customer might be a secondary processing department. On the other hand if the business is small enough or based on a single process, then the external customer will be someone who gets the final product. However, the size of an organisation is critical to the implementation of Six Sigma. Hence this text will take implementation within a large business context as small businesses can seldom afford Six Sigma initiatives. Therefore the external customer in question will be an allied business processing unit or function. Using the customer’s input as the guideline within Six Sigma is better labelled as VoC (Voice of Customer). The customer specifies their requirements using surveys, discussions, focus groups, comment cards etc. (Curious Cat, 2009) In comparison, the VoP (Voice of Process) depends on the process capability. The contention is to measure the best performance that a system could deliver. This is often described statistically using a control chart. Historical performance statistics may also be used to analyse the situation better. The most differentiated aspect of the VoP approach is its reliance on hard statistical data to take decisions. However, there is a great chance of leaving large gaps in collecting data through misreporting as wel l as omission. (Mann, 2006) VoP is also reliable in discerning the stability or instability of any given business process or operation. Statistical quality records are utilised to create control chart models and this will be discussed below. Lean Methodology for VoP The methodology for a lean Six Sigma RCA will be analysed by following it step wise. Strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities will be discussed in an attempt to introduce the sources of error in such systems. Data Collection and Processing Data collection is the single most important part of any RCA treatment. If data is flawed by any given definition then there is no chance that the entire analysis and its subsequent follow up will yield any favourable results at

Monday, November 18, 2019

How fast-food has a significant impact in Childhood obesity Research Paper

How fast-food has a significant impact in Childhood obesity - Research Paper Example How fast-food has a significant impact in Childhood obesity? Childhood obesity is a serious/major public health concern and it currently getting a great amount of attention because of its wider economic impacts, as well as the long term consequences on children’s overall health, quality of life, academic achievements and productivity as they turn into adults. Fortunately, latest findings point out that the growth in the proportion of children categorized as obese or overweight has finally leveled off. Nevertheless, rates of obesity and overweight still remain high. â€Å"Almost 35% of children aged 6 to 19 years are overweight and roughly 19% are obese†. Taking health into consideration, the effects of obesity among children include coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, orthopedic abnormalities and respiratory problems. One of the fields of the food industry, which is being held responsible for the prevalence of childhood obesity, is the FAFH – food-away-from-home – sector, in essence, the fast food industry. From the late 70’s till the mid 90’s, the volume of foods consumed away from home went up considerably from 16% to 29%. The eating patterns of children, particularly those in school, have echoed the fast growth of the FAFH industry. In the late 70’s, children obtained roughly 20% of their caloric intake from food FAFH sources. The data obesity surveys conducted from 2003 to 2006 show that food-away-from-home was liable for 35% of children’s caloric intake. A number of surveys have argued that children who take more fast-food have much lower dietary quality are also expected to be obese or overweight. This paper will discuss how fast-food has a significant impact in Childhood obesity. Background Whereas the main motivation of centering on children is the accessibility of geographically explicit information on weight measures for an extremely big sample, children are a significant group to research in their own right. â€Å"Among school aged chi ldren, 6-19 rates of overweight have soared from about 5% in the early 1970s to 16%, in 1999-2002† (Currie et al. 5). These rates are of significant concern provided that children who are obese are most expected to be obese or overweight as grownups and are gradually suffering from illnesses related to overweight when still young. Critics of the fast food sector point to a number of features, which might make fast food less healthy compared to other types of FAFH. These comprise of low time and monetary costs, high calorie levels of signature menu items and large portions. For sure, energy densities for personal food items are normally too high that it would be hard for people consuming them not to go past their normally recommended dietary intakes (Currie et al. 6). A number of consumers might be specifically defenseless. In two randomized practical trials concerning 26 overweight and 28 normal-weight children, Sinclair et al. (2833) contrasted caloric intakes on â€Å"unres tricted fast-food days,† as well as â€Å"no fast-food days.† The researchers found out that overweight children had much higher caloric intakes on â€Å"fast-food days† compared to â€Å"none fast-food days. The main fast food chains are also concerned in aggressive advertising to children. One particular experimental study of children aged three to five years provided them identical pairs of beverages and foods, the only distinction being that some foods were packaged by McDonalds (Robinson et al. 792). Data Sources and Summary Statistics Data for this paper came from three sources: school data and restaurant data. School Data The data on children from this study came from Californian schools from the late 90 and early 2000s up to 2007. The study of mostly 9th graders, which the paper centers on, represents 3.6 million student-year observations. In California, during spring, 9th graders are normally given fitness assessment test,

Friday, November 15, 2019

Study of Burnout in English Language Teachers

Study of Burnout in English Language Teachers CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Generally, individuals who work face to face with people may experience burnout. Burnout can be a primary cause to an individual who suffers from this symptoms and also people around them (Landeche, 2009). Moreover, this syndrome affects people who work in helping professions or other client-centered fields (Schutte, Toppinen, Kalimo, Schaufeli, 2000). The idea of burnout was formed by Herbert Freudenberger in 1974 as wearing down or draining out of energy (Freudenberger North, 1985). In addition, Freudenberger (1974), state that burnout â€Å"is not a situation that gets better by being ignored. Nor is it any kind of disgrace. On the opposite, its a problem born of good intentions.† Burnout may render people unable to cope with their problems; however, those who are able to cope with their problems of work issues may perform better at their jobs. In the teaching profession, the phenomenon of burnout has often been studied and has globally been well accepted as being problematic and uncertain for teachers (Cherniss, 1995; Guglielmi Tatrow, 1998). Folkman (1984) relates burnout with stress; it is a combination of mental and physical symptoms. This psychological react as â€Å"long-term exhaustion and diminished interest† and it may take a long period to blow up to the surface. In addition to that, high level of stress for considerable periods of time could increase burnout characteristics including less sympathy and understanding towards students, reduced acceptance of students, failure to set up lessons and a lack of commitment to the teaching profession (Dorman, 2003). Ingersoll and Smith (2003) mentioned that teacher burnout is often known as a main source of teacher retention phase. At present, teachers in Malaysia are facing extensive pressure from all the changes taking place in the education system due to the Malaysia Plan. About 4 out of 27 Institut Pendidikan Guru Malaysia (IPGM) (Teachers Training Institutes) will focus on teacher training of English language teachers. Besides, the government will assess and monitor the effectiveness of the program constantly and will provide some inventive to empower students with English language (Tenth Malaysia Plan, 2010). This idea has increased ESL teachers workload and hence brings about the assumption that their burnout level has also risen. To make the above statement clearer, the teaching periods had increased from 90 240 to 330 minutes a week for primary 1, 2 and 3. Meanwhile, for primary 4, 5 and 6 it has increased from 90 210 minutes to 300 minutes a week. The changes also do not exclude secondary schools ESL teachers, whereby their teaching periods had increased from 80 200 to 280 minutes a week. Further, literature reports that workload or work tasks have increased and education system transformation, societal changes and multitasking have caused teachers work to increase in intensity (Brante, 2009). Moreover, the changes of moral and normative quality of teachers work (where teachers are expected to influence students lives to a greater level than in the past) also have caused teachers work to become more complicated and intense (Brante, 2009). The complexity of the tiredness situation develops negative job feelings, low professional in self-perceptive and losing of empathy for clients (Maslach Pines, 1984). According to this characterization, the burnout syndrome consists of three dimensions: emotional exhaustion felt by people who cooperate extensively with other people, depersonalization and diminished personal accomplishment. Emotional exhaustion is indicated by lack of energy and the consumption of a persons emotional wealth. Depersonalization results in the form of impassiveness and cynicism toward co-workers, clients, and the organization. Finally, diminished personal accomplishment is a tendency to assess oneself negatively (Maslach, 1982; Maslach Jackson, 1981; Pines Maslach, 1980). According to Maslach (1976), people who always have interactions with others can undergo consistent emotional pressure. Burke and Greenglass (1995) suggested that burnout includes three components â€Å"that are conceptually diverse but empirically related† (p.188). In this line, Schaufeli and Buunk (2002) consider the occurrence of teachers difficulties is characterized in three dimensions, including (1) a physical dimension concerning exhaustion as an external symptom, (2) a mental distancing from regular teacher activities, and (3) a reduced professional effectiveness. Considering all of these measures which contribute to teacher burnout, the purpose of this study took its shape. The study primarily aims to investigate the level of burnout in a selected group of English language teachers in Putrajaya primary and secondary schools. Additionally, it seeks to find out whether their working experience or teaching level can determine their level of burnout. 1.2 Statement of Problem Teachers are often physically and emotionally challenged; therefore, they may experience burnout. Teacher burnout has been shown to have negative effects on teacher and student performance (Huberman Vandenberghe, 1999; Maslach Leiter, 1999). Here a clear picture can be seen that stresses an important issue in most educational systems today. Research on elementary school teachers in the United States shows that working experience can influences teacher burnout (Cheek, Bradley, Parr Lan, 2003). In line with that, research in Malaysia also indicates teachers from different working experience categories suffer varying levels of burnout (Mukundan Khandehroo, 2009). Besides, a research in Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers perceived different level of stress (Alan, Chan, Chen, Elaine Chong, 2010). Whereas most research carried out in European and North American Countries indicated high levels of burnout among primary school teachers (Mearns Cain, 2003). In Malaysia, primary and secondary school teachers also suffered from stress (NUTP, 2005). Demographic factors have been found much related to burnout syndrome among teachers in various studies. Most of the studies focused on age, gender, marital status, education attainment and job satisfaction, but very few focused on working experience among specific subject teachers (Mukundan Khandehroo, 2009). Moreover, not much studies done in federal administrative centre of Malaysia like Putrajaya. Meanwhile, the education system and administration also has been graded as very outstanding. Given the relative paucity of research in this area in Malaysia, it is important to study the effect of teachers working experience and teaching level on burnout. 1.3 Objectives of Study The present study is an attempt to determine the level of burnout among a group of English language teachers in a number of primary and secondary schools in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The specific objectives of the study are as follows: To determine the level of burnout dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment among the sample. To compare the samples burnout levels in reference to their working experience. To compare the samples level of burnout in reference to their teaching level. 1.4 Research Questions The research questions of the study are as follows: What is the level of emotional exhaustion among ESL teachers in Putrajaya? What is the level of depersonalization among ESL teachers in Putrajaya? What is the level of personal accomplishment among ESL teachers in Putrajaya? Is there a significant difference between high (10 years and above) and low (below 10 years) experienced teachers scores of burnout dimensions? Is there a significant difference between the ESL primary and secondary school teachers scores of burnout dimensions? 1.5 Significance of Study At this small-scale level, the findings from this study will provide valuable information for both schools (primary and secondary) ESL teachers in Putrajaya. By having this information, teachers and stake holders may realize and more aware of the current situations. School is a centre in promoting education to students. In educational setting, students relate to many different professionals who assist them in pursuing and achieving their educational goals. Teachers have important roles in the teaching- learning network. Maslach (1976) notes that the teaching career is relatively flat with little opportunity for hierarchical advancement, and regardless of how many hours teachers work, there is very little opportunity for additional pay. Based on this, it is expected that this study will help ESL teachers especially to be more professional in managing their work and to help them to reduce their burnout level. In addition, the study contributes to ESL teachers and administrators awareness of the can factors that lead to burnout. This will prevent the teacher from being overly stressed or burnt out at work. This study looks into the burnout occurrence with relation to working experience among ESL teachers in Putrajaya schools. It also tries to determine primary and secondary school ESL teachers level of burnout. It is one of the steps to have ‘healthy teachers ensure effective teaching performance. The significance of this study lies on the data collection regarding the burnout and working experience among primary and secondary school ESL teachers in Malaysia. It can lead to a better reduction of stress among the English as Second Language teachers in Putrajaya. The findings of the study can provide useful information for the decision makers to help the ESL teachers as increased stress levels would affect the education system. Moreover, the administrators also have better understanding of the present educational situation and this will improve teachers efficiency in primary and secondary schools in Putrajaya and consequently result in students better performance. 1.6 Limitation of Study This study was limited to primary and secondary school ESL teachers in Federal Territory of Putrajaya only. As such, the findings may not be generalized to all primary and secondary schools ESL teachers in Malaysia. In addition according to Krejcie and Morgan (1970) the researcher required a sample size of 113. However, only 79 respondents cooperated for this study. The ESL teachers who were excluded in this study were in courses, doing further study, on medical leave and maternity leave and some of them were on personal leave. 1.7 Operational Definition of Terms Burnout :Freudenberger (1974) defined burnout as one of the chronic exhaustion and frustration resulting from continued commitment to a goal or principle that has unsuccessful to produce a corresponding reward. Within the scope of the present study, burnout refers to ESL teachers experience of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment based on the well-known definition by Maslach (1976) as well as Maslach and Jackson (1981). Emotional Exhaustion : Feelings of being emotionally overextended and exhausted by ones daily conflict in work. In this study, following Gavrilovici (2007), the term is defined as the lack of passion and the sense of emotional draining by other people among the teachers. As the first dimension of burnout, emotional exhaustion in this study is measured by items like I feel emotionally drained from my work Depersonalization: An insensitive and impersonal response toward receivers of ones concern, care, service or instruction (Maslach, Jackson, Leiter, 1996). Thus, it can result in the form of impassiveness and cynicism toward co-workers, clients and the organization(Ali Hamdy, 2005). In this study, it is measured by items like I feel I treat some students as if they were impersonal objects Personal Accomplishment : It is defined as feelings of competency and successful achievement in ones work and ones self capability in classroom and professional efficacy (Gavrilovici, 2007). In this study, items like I feel I am positively influencing other peoples lives through my work, helped the researcher measure teachers personal accomplishment. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction In this chapter the previous studies on burnout and its three dimensions are presented. Next, studies that investigated burnout and its connection with working experience are discussed. The chapter also includes a review of the literature on burnout in relation to teaching levels of primary and secondary schools. Finally, the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of the study are discussed. 2.2 Studies Related to Burnout and its Dimensions Ideally, the teaching profession should be seen as effect ion of love in work and enthusiastic; however, various studies have shown that today it has been changed as a stressful job (Travers Cooper, 1996; Kyriacou, 2001; Kyriakides, Campbell Christofidou, 2002). Moreover, todays teaching job is quite complicated as teachers have to carry out not only teaching but also matters associated with curriculum, students, parents, the school community and departmental initiatives. According to Smylie (1999), â€Å"These are tough times to be a teacher† (p. 59). These issues of distress in the teaching profession may be the culprits for increased burnout levels. Generally, individuals who work face to face with people may experience burnout. Burnout can be a primary cause to an individual who suffers from this symptoms and also people around them (Landeche, 2009). Burnout in the teaching profession has frequently been investigated and has globally been well accepted as being problematic for teachers (Cherniss, 1995; Guglielmi Tatrow, 1998). Burnout was first introduced by Herbert Freudenberger in 1974. It was defined as wearing down or draining out of energy (Freudenberger North, 1985). Burnout may render people unable to cope with their problems. Those who are unable to cope with their problems of work issues may exhibit a lower level of job performance quality. Burnout is a sophisticated state of mental strain, the center of which is emotional exhaustion (Maslach Jackson, 1981). The thought of going to work is a common symptom of emotional exhaustion. Often this can be exacerbated as individuals become frustrated or angry with themselves as they realize they cannot give the same kind of enthusiasm as in the past to the company or administrator. However, New York Magazine stated burnout is a problem thats both physical and existential, an untidy conglomeration of external symptoms and personal frustrations (Senior, 2006). Burnout results from a form of chronic stress associated with the everyday interactions and close contact with others that is required in peoples work (Pennington, 1992). Teachers are among the people that are highly exposed to burnout because they entertain their students every day in school. Teaching line at times can be very dissatisfying and it is a painstaking job (Cikla Duatepe, 2004). Most of burnout research that had been done has been limited to the helping profession (e.g., nursing, education, social work); however, the construct is pervasive, cutting across many types of organizations and jobs (Cordes Dougherty, 1993). In conjunction with that, Stoeber and Rennert (2008) conducted research involving different cultures. They found that school teachers have one of the highest levels of work stress. Societal changes, increased workload or work tasks, education system transformation, change of moral and normative quality of teachers work (where teachers are expected to influence students lives to a greater level than in the past), and multitasking have caused teachers work to increase in intensity and become more complicated (Brante, 2009). Burnout can develop negative job feelings, low professional in self-perceptive and losing of empathy for clients (Maslach Pines, 1984). The burnout syndrome is explained in three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished personal accomplishment (Maslach Pines, 1984). According to Maslach (1976), people who always have interactions with others can undergo repetitious emotional pressure. The construct of emotional exhaustion imply the thoughts of overtiredness and overextension caused by every day work force, and workplace conflicts. While, depersonalization is referring to the growth of negative feelings and impersonal responses towards the people they works closely which affect the continual relations among helpers (for example, teachers) and clients (for example, students). Reduced personal accomplishment means a loss of self esteem and work accomplishment as a consequence of limited positive feedback and recognition and competency in personal affairs at work (Maslach Jackson, 1981; Rowe, 1998). In line with that, Burke and Greenglass (1995) suggested that burnout which includes three components â€Å"that are conceptually diverse but empirically related† (p.188). Schaufeli and Buunk (2002) considered the occurrence of teachers difficulties is characterized in the three dimensions, including (1) a physical dimension concerning to exhaustion as an external symptom, (2) a mental distancing from regular teacher activities, and (3) a reduced professional effectiveness. Some studies indicate stress can occur due to the workload increment, mischievous students, parent-teacher relationship issues, misunderstandings among colleagues, no support or very poor school leadership and lack of autonomy (Skaalvik Skaalvik, 2007). The longer a teacher works, the less job satisfaction they exhibit. This paves the way to an increase in emotional exhaustion (EE) and a reduction in personal accomplishment (PA). Most recognized that teaching profession has one of the largest occupational pressures. Burnout influences most of the teachers at some point of their teaching profession (Cheek, Bradley, Parr Lan, 2003; Dorman, 2003; Schwab Iwanicki, 1982). Teachers burnout can have consequences for their professions (Wood McCarthy, 2002). Moreover, when burnout increases in teachers profession, it makes them hate their career and it affects their students achievement (Dworkin, 1985). Farber and Miller (1981) notable that teachers who experience symptoms of burnout might: be less sympathetic with their students have low tolerance for frustration not plan often or carefully consider or plan to leave the profession all together report feelings of emotional or physical exhaustion on a frequent basis be depressed, irritable, and anxious From the professional point of view, burnout can lead to a significant fall in teaching performance, frequent absenteeism due to illness and early retirement. Teachers who suffer from burnout may behave rigidly towards their students, and have negative and low expectations of students, and they may feel exhausted emotionally and physically, and show low levels of involvement in teaching or concern for their students (Maslach, 1976; Spaniol Caputo, 1979; Farber Miller, 1981). In the United States, teacher burnout has become a topic receiving national attention (Blase, 1986; Huston 1989). A survey of American literature by Farber (1991) showed that approximately 5-20 percent of all teachers in the United States will be burned out at a given moment in their career. In Malaysia, the unease over job-related stress, experienced by school teachers, has been raised to a great extent by the National Union of the Teaching Profession or NUTP (Abdul Muin Sapidin, 2005). As it can be observed from the findings of the local research in both primary and secondary schools a considerable proportion of teachers suffer from stress. The teachers who experienced high levels of stress, in each research, included 17.5% (Mokhtar Ahmad, 1998), 21.3% (Mohd Razali Othman Abd. Mat Abg. Masagus, 1998) and 36.8% (Malakolunthu, 1994). These researchers have reported various factors as the sources of stress in their samples, including students attitude, workload, and having to teach poorly motivated students. A research by Mukundan and Khandehroo (2009) found that burnout was evident among Malaysian English teachers at high levels in all dimensions. However, there is a lack of attempt to measure the burnout level involved in ESL teaching in the country. 2.3 Studies Related to Working Experience and Burnout Teacher development is a dynamic journey. The occurrence of work stress of teachers has increased in recent years. While educators were a strong element in influencing education resolution and encouraged by varies class of people since 30 to 40 years ago, this begin to change particularly starting the mid-70s (Iwanicki, 1983; Gunduz, 2005). Until now, more than 1,000 studies on burnout done by the researchers and it can be considered the gold standard research where teachers who have spent many years in the profession also been involved (Schaufeli Enzmann, 1998). The demographics variables that may influence burnout include the teachers age, gender, marital status, education background, working hours, time spent in former workplace, experience, sensitivity of their job and their self perceptions about quality of teaching (Johnson, Gold Knepper, 1984; Qtd. in Aksoy, 2007, p. 20). Researchers have found that age and teaching experience are related to teacher stress level (Yahaya, Hashim, Kim, 2005). Moreover, studies carried out in Malaysia identified several factors contributing to stress and burnt out at work among teachers, such as years of experience in teaching (Mokhtar, 1998), the feelings of responsibility and working environment (Ismail, 1998), the school type and perceptions of inadequate school facilities (Chan, 2006) and use of information technology (Hanizah, 2003). Moreover, studies have shown that teachers burnout often experiences an aggravated phase at some point in the middle of their teaching experience that is about teaching after 15 years or so. This is when teachers may feel frustrated with teaching or working to meet the level of step-down. As a result, they often feel helplessness and fatigue. In American and Australian study found that newer teachers were more likely to experience higher burnout than more experienced ones (Crane Iwanicki, 1986; Pierce Molloy, 1990). The relationship between the level of burnout and teaching experience may be explained by the intention that feeling burnout could be reduced as a result of trained maturity. Attention to the teachers experience is also given by Konert (1997). She suggests that better coping skills with students have been developed by more experienced teachers than less experienced teachers, and they might have acquired more realistic expectations over the time about their profession. Generally, teachers who are less experienced are in need of help from their seniors or experienced teachers. The experienced teachers will try to solve the problem by themselves. However, these teachers also need to sacrifice their time. This indicates experience could also be a crucial factor that can influence burnout. Leong (1995) stated that development of effective methodology to cope with various factors that lead to stress may be handled more effectively by the teacher with more experience. Studies showed that a teacher without experience is more likely to be an ‘interventionist than a highly experienced teacher (Martin et al., 2002). On the other hand, another study shows that an experienced teacher is more likely to be an ‘interventionist (Martin et al., 2002). Here the ‘interventionist refers to the teachers beliefs and attitudes toward classroom management in three broad dimensions which are instructional management, people management, and behavior management with reference to working experience. More research is required to resolve such inconsistencies in previous research findings. Less experienced teachers may suffer from burnout as a result of a feeling of powerlessness. A teacher who experiences low self-esteem and out-of-the-way from students will not be able to perform well. Shukla and Trivedi (2008) state that, â€Å"Burnout is not a trivial problem but it is an important parameter of a major social dysfunction in the work place† (p. 324). In addition to that, teacher burnout has been shown to have negative effects on teacher and student performance (Huberman Vandenberghe, 1999; Maslach Leiter, 1999). Teachers who are confused on their job specifications will develop feelings of depersonalization. Dissatisfaction and increases in tiredness, increases with work pressures, and role conflict (Viswesvaran et al., 1999). Again, less experienced teachers may feel high levels of burnout as they have to cope with the changes in a new environment. Less experienced teachers are more likely to experience burnout and conflict-inducing attitudes towards the students (Sava, 2001). In a study in southwest United States, 51 elementary school teachers were involved in the study using music therapy techniques to treat teacher burnout (Cheek, Bradley, Parr Lan, 2003). The results showed that burnout also influences most teachers at some point in their working experiences (Cheek et. al., 2003). A study on the age and years of teaching experience of the agriculture teacher are related to depersonalization scores and no significant relationships were found between years of teaching experience and emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment (Croom, 2003). Obviously, as teachers grow older and more experienced, they will alleviate coping skills in tendency to treat students in an impersonal manner. In line with that, teaching competency is an additional determining stressor for less experienced teachers with limited training, as research shows significant differences between the novice and the experienced, the trained and untrained, as well as those with and without full qualifications (Chan Juriani, 2010). In other words, teaching capability is a factor which causes the teachers who lack training and experience to feel more stressful than the other teachers. In Malaysia, a study by Mukundan and Khandehroo (2009) indicated less experienced ESL teachers had a higher level of emotional exhaustion as compared to experienced teachers. Such findings imply that less experienced teachers are more responsive to their students than the experienced ones. In contrast, Hong Kong studies found that no significant difference has been found between teachers with various years of teaching experience in perceived stress level (Alan, Chan, Chen, Elaine Chong, 2010). However, connection can be seen from previous study in Turkey. It involves 523 teachers from 50 primary public schools. The researcher sought to find out to what extent teaching experience variables predict burnout among primary school teachers. The results of the study indicated that working experience can be considered as significant predictors of emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout (Yalà §Ãƒâ€žÃ‚ ±n Ozdemir, 2007). From the literature it may be seen that burnout is a complex issue that should be addressed in reference to working experience. In the present study, another variable which is teaching level and the literature related to it will be discussed. 2.4Studies Related to Teaching Level and Burnout Studying on the issue of burnout among primary and secondary school teachers is important for the administration and teachers to work together to improve the working environment and reduce the burnout. In Malaysia, a survey conducted among 9,000 primary, secondary and technical school teachers revealed that 67% of Malaysian teachers suffer from stress (NUTP, 2005). From a few existing studies in the literature, researchers found primary and secondary school teachers in Hong Kong perceived different levels of stress. Teachers of primary schools perceived a significantly higher level of stress than those in secondary schools. Issues of class cuts and teachers career instability could be the main reasons for such results (Alan, Chan, Chen, Elaine Chong, 2010). A study on the relationship between primary school teachers burnout and some of their demographic variables in Turkish cities found that burnout levels of the teachers are low (Cikla Duatepe, 2004). By contrast, a study in Antalya, Turkey by Ali (2009) considers the relationship between teachers burnout and organizational health in primary schools. The findings show that teachers burnout level is low in emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment and high in depersonalization. Based on a study conducted on emotion regulation ability, burnout and job satisfaction among British secondary school teachers it was found that a significant relationship exists between emotion regulation ability and a component of burnout, personal accomplishment (Brackett, Palomera, Mojsa, Reyes Salovey, 2010). However, a study on emotional intelligence and locus of control as predictors of burnout among secondary school teachers in Ondo State, Nigeria indicated that both emotional intelligence and locus of control significantly could predict burnout among secondary school teachers (Akomolafe Popoola, 2011). In Malaysia, it was found that English teachers (n=184) teaching in Malaysian primary and secondary schools in Malacca experience burnout at high levels in all three dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment (Mukundan Khandehroo, 2009). In addition, in a research project conducted by Segumpan and Bahari (2006) among 1209 teachers from 14 secondary schools in Malacca, it was found that 57.2% of the respondents had high stress levels because of the students misbehavior. In contrast, in a study on stress among teachers in secondary schools in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia, it was found that 74% of secondary school teachers experienced low levels of stress (Azlihanis, Nyi Nyi, Aziah, Rusli, Mohd Rahim, 2009). Moreover, a study showed that role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, and lack of administrative support significantly predict burnout among girls secondary school teachers in Kinta, Perak (Leong, 1995). In line with that, another study in Kinta, Perak showed that burnout among teachers are significantly related to social support, working environment and role overload. The boys secondary school teachers were experience higher level of burnout and teachers from girls secondary schools experience low level of burnout (Mohd Puat, 1998). As it can be seen from the reviewed literature, there is very little research on burnout and the teaching level and hence a need for further studies. 2.5 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework of the Study Figure 1 shows the theoretical framework for this study. Basically, emotional exhaustion plus depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment will influence burnout. In specific terms, a high score on the emotional exhaustion subscale and a high score on depersonalization subscale and a low score on personal accomplishment subscale will indicate a high level of burnout: (EE + DP) PA = BURNOUT. Based on this theoretical framework, the following conceptual framework was proposed (Figure 2): IV DV Context Figure 2: Conceptual framework As the figure shows, the independent variables (IV) are working experience of ESL teachers (>10 years and