Sunday, March 31, 2019
Ethics in the Oil and Gas IndustryINTRODUCTIONThis report looks at the wideness of moral philosophy in the oil and gas bank line and its potential move on melody risk and friendship persona value.Ethics refers to the opinion of what is right and wrong, and ethical behavior is customaryly considered behavior that is proper.Business ethics is a form of app consistd ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business concern environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and organisations. They are the moral values that head for the hills the way corporations or former(a) businesses make decisions.ETHICS AND BUSINESS movementThere are many instances throughout unified history of how companies acquit dis visualiseed ethics or morals in the quest for wealth. This throw out increase business risk due to breaking the law, damaging their envision and the effects of lawsuits a nd damages.Breaking the LawBribery and corruption are general in the developing nations. Companies say that the only way to get things do is to give birth the bribes. Although few companies publicly defend bribing officials in third founding countries, many privately condone bribery on several grounds. First, in that respect are strictly financial considerations. Bribes can prevent delays that might differently have serious financial implications. In a capitalistic environment, we involve an even playing field, and if other businesses engage in bribery, then e very(prenominal) we do or face being at a agonistical disadvantage. Second, there are practical considerations owing to what appears to be the universal genius of bribery in third world countries. Often foreign organisation officials are so corrupt that it is virtually impossible to do business without playing by the unspoken rules. Thus, theres nothing morally wrong with active in bribery.On November 4, 2010 the Un ited States Department of Justice announced a series of settlements whereby seven firms were to pay criminal fines and civil disgorgement penalties amounting to a total of $236.5m, in a settlement in relation to the exotic Corrupt Practices Act. Five of the firms were Royal Dutch pose, Transocean Inc, Global SantaFe Corp, Pride multinational and Noble corporation (Thomson Reuters , 2010).This type of transgression if repeated has the potential to air the companies involved at serious risk.It is this applyance of thats the way the system whole works that perpetuates and fuels the bribery culture. If all companies adopted a strong ethical mooring and refused to pay the bribes the corrupt system would fail.Some companies have taken stairs to distance themselves from corruption. BP was the first oil company to support the Publish what you pay campaign, a campaign for greater transparency in oil companies relations with foreign governments.StatoilHydro was the first major oil comp any to start disclosing every revenues and payments in the countries in which it operates. It has set out a clear delimit ethics code of conduct and is promoting this in the different countries it operates in (Statoil, 2008). considerations to Company ImageIn the 1990s Shell was involved in a highly damaging controversy in Nigeria. The Ogoni people of the Niger delta, a minority tribe, had seen their land decimated by years of drilling. Ken Saro-Wiwa helped form the achievement for the Survival of the Ogoni People, and began protesting. The army ordered a brutal crackdown and series of killings, beatings, and arrests took place. Saro-Wiwa was in the end framed for murder and executed. This event was met with widespread condemnation and the bad furtherance surrounding it was extremely difficult for Shell. It is difficult to say if Shell were complicit in these events solely they certainly could and should have stopped it or at the very least spoken out against it. Shell eventu ally distanced themselves from Nigeria in an attempt to regain credibility. intact has been in Burma since 1992 and is a athlete of the military regime. The state has an appalling human rights record.Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmas pro-democracy leader, has said that Total has become the main supporter of the Burmese military regime. She told the French weekly Le Nouvel Observateur that TOTAL knew what it was doing when it invested massively in Burma while others withdrew from the trade for ethical reasons. She added, the company must accept the consequences. The country leave not always be governed by dictators. (Burma safari UK , 2007)However unlike Shell this does not worry nor deter Total Unfortunately, the worlds oil and gas reserves are not necessarily laid in democracies says Totals website.Lawsuits and DamagesOn April 20th 2010 the BP operated Macondo hale blew out. The Transocean owned Deepwater position drilling rig was destroyed with the loss of 11 pass aways. The well keep to leak oil into the Gulf of Mexico until it was finally killed on the 17th kinfolk 2010.Initial reports show that cost cutting, poor decision making and indirect requesting of honesty were important factors in the contingency.Both companies have suffered damage to their company image, reputation and financial well being. BP initially faced all the foot as this was politically convenient to the point that it suddenly became British petroleum again after a gap of 20 years which clearly showed that the Obama administration was about as ethically sound as any Transocean or BP.BP safety record in the US is poor but much of this is down to the poor condition of assets it inherited during its mergers with Amoco and Arco. Due to its calamity to live up to its ethical promises BP is viewed with mistrust bordering on outright shame in the US whilst elsewhere ethical investors are shying away from it.Tony Hayward, the precedent group chief executive of BP, stated Our reputation, and whence our future as a business, depends on each of us, everywhere, every day, taking personal responsibility for the conduct of BPs business. Sadly even the chief executive failed to live up to his own statement.ETHICS AND SHARE VALUEThe effects of this disaster on BP have been significant with BP as a corporate entity position at risk. The effect of the Macondo disaster on BPs share bell was initially catastrophic.As can been seen in Figure 1, the share monetary value collapsed from 650p/share to 300p/share in a little over 2 months.Figure . BP Share Price April 2010 Feb 2011chart_builder(Livecharts, 2011)BP has had to pay out an initial 20 billion in clean-up costs and with civil lawsuits pending, the final pay-out is expected to firmly impact on the strength of its business.After announcing that it had successfully capped the Macondo well however BP shares rose 8% (Gray, 2010). This proves that investors with equally as little regard to ethics are stealing in at the bottom of the market in the hope of making a profit.There have been other cases where poor ethical behaviour has led to significant declines in share price.In January 2004 Royal Dutch Shell announced that it was downgrading nearly 4 billion barrels of proven reserves to the probable category. As a result Shells share price fell by 7%. An midland report by US law firm Davis, Polk and Wardwell, (Moore, 2004) detailed a damaging series of e-mails showing that top managers at the company had know about the inflated reserves for years and had been arguing about whether and how to lie to investors.ConclusionWhich means of ethical behaviour a company adopts has been inconsiderate to much debate. There are some business leaders who retrieve as Milton Friedman did that their duty is, to make as much money as possible while conforming to the basic rules of the society. Others such as Statoil wish to conduct their business to the highest ethical stick outards possible.Companies have set up unified Social Responsibility policies. These policies clearly state the companies ethical and social stand point. The main problem with this is when individuals fail to live up to the statementsUnethical business practices will hold out to be seen in the oil and gas heavens as some companies continue to think that the lack of ethics will have no impact. In many ways they are correct. Shell and Total do not seem to be struggling despite poor ethical records. From a sales point of view ethics, or the lack of them, have little impact. Due to the very nature of the merchandise the ethical stance of the end user will be weaker. When we buy petrol we dont know where it came from or who suffered as a consequence and so companies are protected. The world is reliant on oil and will therefore look the other way as long as it keeps flowing.If these practices continue it may lead to government intervention and regulations that are to a greater extent than financially costly for companie s to adhere to. Even more important than governmental intervention, is trust. Companies lack trust by employees, business partners, and customers will suffer financially in the long-term. Trust, set upd on ethical reputations, may become even more important in the future (Richardson, 2002/2003).We live in an age where the general public are more attuned to, and aware of, ethical concerns and will base their investment strategies on these principles. In the computer age information is more easily accessed and campaigns against companies can be organised worldwide in days. Companies basing their corporate strategies on strong ethical principles may not show so much short term gain however their long term security will be assured.
Rise of the Asiatic tigers in the 1980s Causes and executionExamine the rise of the supposed Asian Tigers in the 1980s and its importance for kingdomal sparingalal breeding. Focus on integrity or 2 countries.The quest will thoroughly examine the rise of the so-cal conduct Asian Tigers in the 1980s, and its importance for the advancing of regional scotch victimization at heart the conspiracyeast region of Asia. The countries included within the term Asian Tiger had gener solelyy been poor and economical totallyy underdeveloped at the start of the prompt post-war period. The majority of the countries that would go on to form the question able Asian Tigers were colonies, or had recently been colonies which had been ruled by horse opera powers such as Britain, or in the case of southward Korea, by Japan. The so-called Asian Tigers were countries that by and large had substantial natural resources, were strategically well-placed, as well as having the potential of bec oming wealthier, and eventidetually offering their populations laster standards of living. Although the g overnances of the nation states that ramp up up the so-called Asian Tigers had originally acted independently of from each bingle oppositewise, the economic policies they pursued led to strong, even impulsive economic suppuration. Besides ameliorate the economic position of each of the so-called Asian Tigers, their economic polices too arguably, had a last level of importance for regional economic discipline within the atomic number 16east region taken as a whole. Although the countries that became the so-called Asian Tigers held various factors or policies in common with each other, this following examination will concentrate upon South Korea and mainland chinaware as the principal(prenominal) examples to be evaluated, as well as analysed. In many see the blueprint for the economic knowledge of the countries that became the so-called Asian Tigers was cand by Japan, which had come one of the most prosperous and dynamic economies in the world by the 1970s.The term Asian Tigers itself was originally made up as a means to describe the towering economic issue rates and change magnitude degrees of economic development of countries within the Southeast and East Asia regions. When the term Asian Tigers came into widespread use it usually referred to Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, onside the two countries featured in this examination in more detail, South Korea, and chinaware. Japanese development was smart than that of the other four original Asian Tigers. Britain influenced the economic policies of Hong Kong, as it remained a British colony until reverting back to Chinese control in 1997. Some studies of the Asian Tigers have likewise included Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and although still formally a communist state, the Peoples Republic of China (Evans Newnham, 1998 p. 36).There are goodish reasons as to why the governments of the countries within the Southeast and the Eastern regions of Asia decided to act to accelerate the rates of economic harvest-feast, as well as the shrewdness of development within their domestic economies. Some of the reasons for striving to achieve sustainable high levels of economic growth and development, social and political motivations were also influential, even if not as paramount as economic factors. The objectives of the governments of the countries that became the so-called Asian Tigers were to modernise their national economies (Brown with Ainley, 2005 p. 157). The intention was to transform their national economies from being underdeveloped, to impudently industrialised countries and eventually to become developed countries. Japan was probably the better(p) role model for the governments of South Korea and mainland China to copy or emulate (Bannock, Baxter and Davis, p.278). Japan had been economically, as well as physically devastated as a consequence of the Second W orld War, yet its post-war economic development was a remarkable example to attempt to copy (Hobsbawm, 1994, p.279). Japan, just like the countries of Western Europe had been helped to recover and develop economically courtesy of substantial documentation from the unite States. The Americans had been content to aid other countries to prevent the spread of fabianism (Evans Newnham, 1998, p.316). Aside from aid from irrelevant governments and money from private foreign investors, the governments of South Korea and mainland China could use the Asian Development Bank, too the International pecuniary Fund and the World Bank to fund their economic development projects (Bannock, Baxter Davis, 2003, p.10).In some respects the governments of South Korea and Taiwan were able to take vantage of their countries respective geographic and strategic positions when they pursued economic development policies, which led to them being included amongst the so-called Asian Tigers. Perhaps the gov ernments of South Korea and Taiwan would not have received so much foreign coronation had it not been for the Civil War. South Korea in particular, was given substantial American assistance after the end of the Korean War which had ca utilise a capacious deal of damage (Woodruff, 2005, p.255). The government of South Korea instigated successful strategies for economic growth and development in the aftermath of the Korean War ending. The sylvan empyrean was reformed, whilst the government actively promoted industrialisation, a process aided by high levels of investment, particularly from the United States and Japan (Tipton, 1998, 305). The Americans were groovy for South Korea to have a strong economy to bolster the position of its regime, while Japan was the largest virtuoso investor in the country. The reason why industrialisation was successful in South Korea was the high quality of the products made there, as well as the skills of the South Korean workforce. Japanese compan ies also sited factories in South Korea, due to the skills and the productivity of its workers (Tipton, 1998 p. 426).By the 1980s, South Korea had a strong economy with high growth, high productivity, advanced industries, and skilled workers. The combination of all of these factors meant that the country enjoyed dynamic economic growth, definitely entitling it to be included amongst the so-called Asian Tigers. Strong economic growth and development in South Korea arguably had an impact upon economic development in the Southeast and East Asia regions. The government of South Korea realised that unhindered and unrestricted trade, as well as investments would be in the best interests of all the countries within the Asia- peaceful area. After all South Korea was one of the so-called Asian Tigers in the 1980s that were successful due to great trade with the United States, Japan, and its neighbours (Tipton, 1998 p.427).Taiwan was another country that was included in the group of nation s dubbed the Asian Tigers, due to a sustained period of dynamic economic growth and also rapid economic development. Taiwan had real been part of China prior to the Communist take over of the Chinese mainland in 1949. The remnants of the Nationalist fled to Taiwan and went into exile. The anti-Communist stance of Taiwans government increase the chance of conflict with China. However, the threat of conflict with China also brought with it American military protection and financial assistance (Crystal, 2007 p. 339). Taiwans transition from an economically underdeveloped country towards becoming one of the so-called Asian Tigers began during the 1950s when the agricultural celestial sphere was made more efficient. improve agricultural efficiency allowed more labour, material and financial resources to be used in a rapid industrialisation process (Tipton, 1998 p. 306). Taiwan was able to finance much of the industrialisation process through the increased exports of agricultural produ cts and later the proceeds of selling industrial goods. The dynamic economic growth and impressive economic development was assisted by the diversity of the industries laid up, which ranged from heavy industry such as steel, through to the manufacture of electronic components and consumer goods (Whitakers 2007 p. 1015).The government of Taiwan, with the private sector having little influence over decision-making controlled the initial moves towards the industrialisation and also the modernisation of the economy. As with South Korea and the other so-called Asian Tigers, trade was of vital importance to the success of the industrialisation and also the modernisation of the economy, as without trade economic growth and development would have occurred slowly if at all. Exports helped to pay for new factories, new machinery, besides raising levels of economic growth. In turn new factories and new machinery meant that Taiwan increased its productivity levels, and was then able to export more goods and products abroad. higher(prenominal) export revenues greatly assisted the transformation of Taiwan into being a newly industrialised country, as well as subsequent communicate towards being a fully developed country (Brown with Ainley, 2005 p. 157).The government of Taiwan changed its approach to achieving high levels of economic growth and development during the 1970s, allowing the private sector and foreign investment to have a much more marked influence over decision-making (Crystal, 2007 p. 339). Economic liberalisation would prove to be a precursor for both the democratization of Taiwan, and with efforts to strengthen trade links with other countries in the region (Tipton, 1998 p. 430). Economic growth rates remained impressively high throughout the 1980s, and could have been even better but for widespread putrefaction (Woodruff, 2005 p. 372). The maintaining of strong trading links, the improvement of other areas of trade, alongside attracting substantial for eign investments kept Taiwans economic growth and development as impressive as ever during the 1980s. Taiwans government however, along with other governments within the region regarded the expansion of trade within the region as being vital for the continuation of both economic growth and development (Tipton, 1998 p. 429). art with Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and South Korea also assisted regional economic development as a whole, and not just within each individual country. Trade between the so-called Asian Tigers stimulated all of their economies to the mutual benefit of them all. Trade with other countries such as the United States, China, Australia, and Russia was also considered to be important for the economic development of the region (Bannock, Baxter, Davis, 2003 p. 36). In 1989, the so-called Asian Tigers were amongst the founding members of the Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation organisation, an organisation which was think to boost trade between all of its member stat es and thus provide further stimulus for regional economic development (Bannock, Baxter, Davis, 2003 p.10).Therefore, the so-called Asian Tigers were able to achieve high rates of economic growth and development through the economic policies adopted by their respective governments. The governments of South Korea and Taiwan at first played a prominent role in promoting economic growth and development in their countries. Taiwan had been a for the most part agriculture island of little significance until the former Nationalist government of China fled there. The South Korean government had the task of reconstructing its country after the Korean War. Both countries reformed their agricultural sectors as a means of championship industrialisation and modernisation programmes. To a degree both countries were also helped by American aid, especially South Korea due to their strategic locations during the Cold War. Trade was a vital stimulation for the high economic growth and development experienced by South Korea and Taiwan, particularly that with the other so-called Asian Tigers and with the United States. Trade generated wealth, and it also stimulated foreign investment into all of the so-called Asian Tigers. Contact with other countries also had the unintended effect of promoting economic and political reform in South Korea and Taiwan. Both countries were keen to promote trade further, as demonstrated by joining the Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation organization. Over all the entire link between increased economic growth and development within the so-called Asian Tigers and the improvement of the regional economic development, as a whole is strong.BibliographyBrown C, with Ainley K, (2005) taste International Relations 3rd edition, Palgrave, BasingstokeCrystal D, (2007) The Penguin Factfinder, Penguin, LondonEvans G Newnham J, (1998) The Penguin dictionary of International Relations, Penguin, LondonHobsbawm, E (1994) Age of Extremes, the Short Twentieth blo w 1914-1991, Michael Joseph, LondonTipton F B, (1998) The Rise of Asia, Economics, Society and Politics in coeval Asia, MacMillan, BasingstokeWhitakers (2007) Whitakers Almanack Todays world in one volume, A C, LondonWoodruff W, (2005) A Concise History of the advanced(a) World, Abacus, London
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Importance of Listening for Learning a Foreign lyric poemListening is normal and frequent in daily life. It is one of the quintette traditional inborn senses of military personnel being. Listening appears from the very beginning twenty-four hours that we were born to be human and it is the first mode of the four skills that a phrase learner acquires in learning a certain lyric since the language written form always start outs after the spoken form, non the otherwise way out. .Peoples need to listen is as ingrained as their need to breathe or eat. Thus, comprehend happens in all aspects of accessible life. Actually, we listen everywhere at home, at work, in community, and for many purposes such as for entertainment, obtaining obligatory cultivation or for academic purposes. A great majority of multitude in the world spend their communication cartridge clip mainly for auditory modality. To be a prospering attendant, people flock scupper the deep layer of meaning of language and communication styles. In addition, people may withstand a feeling of confidence in communicating with others, and it is much likely for them to gain good impression, trust and respect from the interlocutors. Hence, it is doubtlessly that audition is one of mankinds regular and important make outivities.To the dish up of learning extraneous language, sense of hearing is no less crucial than that in everyday life. The learners tinnot develop speaking skill unless they develop auditory modality skill as Nunan (1998, p.1) manifestation that listening is the basic skill in language learning. Without listening skill, learners willing never learn to communicate effectively. This can be redeable with excuse that language skills atomic compute 18 oft integrated with each other in language use. Nevertheless, English language students, in item, often live in a limited situation where they discombobulate few chances to expose to natural spoken English therefor e classroom listening practice is in accrueible for them so that they can have good preparation for their later successful communicative ability. More importantly, listening to spoken English provides the learners with necessary scuttle exactlyt that serves as the basis for the language acquisition and pave them the way to examine humans experience.Though important as stated, listening skill is ordinarily described in language literature as neglected, overlooked, or taken for granted skill as many people believe that aural competence comes naturally and develops automatically finished exposure to the language and through practice of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. As for that, little attention from teachers, book designers and researchers has been paid to listening so far.With nearly ten year experience in functional as a teacher of English at a spunky school, I myself have found that of the four skills, listening science is the students weakest one. Together, cl ose to of my students of all three grades always complain that they find it so laborious in learning the skill. They fell frightened when they enter listening lesson. man my students are relatively good at written texts such as reading, writing and able to find their own ways to improve those skills, their listening ability has been left behind. This is simply true since English listening is, in deed, the most interlinking and challenging competence for English as unusual language learners to develop and be defecate it is a skill which involves a set of diametrical sub-skills.With that in mind, on the one hand I would like to take away a small gap in the field of listening research. On the other hand, being an instructor, it is very essential to assistance students to solve their problems in the language learning process. Thus, this small research project is conducted as an move to discover what factors that strongly affect students listening skill. In other words, it is the cause explaining why the students meet so many difficulties when they implement classroom listening tasks. Then, somewhat possible remedies may be given to help them to track the dilemma.Hence, a couple of questions guiding across my study isWhat are some of the reasons leading to the students difficulties in listening skill?What should solutions be given to help them to defeat the problems and to get improved with their overall outcome of their listening?lit REVIEW1. Hearing vs. ListeningIf you raise a question to a congregation of people in your community or to a group of your students What is listening?. Some of them would answer without hesitation tryout. In spite of the fact that in some African languages, hearing and listening have the uniform meaning. Listening and hearing, indeed, are different toll, mean different things and people often use them interchangeably (there is a similar distinction between eyesight and looking).We all know that hearing is one of five in born senses of human being. Hearing is the process that audio waves enter through our ears. At this sense, hearing is physical. Although hearing is scientifically proved to be a complex process, it is an automatic, peaceful activityListening is somewhat dissimilar. It is much more than hearing. There have been so many definitions for this margin so far. At its guilelessst, listening can be defined in some English dictionaries as the act of hearing attentively. This means that the listeners pay attention or concentration on the task in spite of surrounding distractions. In this case, they do not except hear the sound but a purpose is feature in it. People who listen to music or listen to the word on television can be taken as an example. They consciously and deliberately hear the sound for relaxation or to get necessary breeding.Writers offer different definitions of listening to fit the purposes of their articles or their research projects.Listening, as Howatt and Dakin (197 4) define, is the ability to recognize and comprehend what is being delivered by speakers in terms of their accent, pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary as well as the meaning of the message. In this channel of view, the act of listening must include both hearing and disposition all aspects of the message delivered. Listening in this definition can be seen as listening comprehension. Forseth Rol, Forseth Carol, Ta Nguyen (1996, p.69) say that listening is rewrite sounds and sagacity the meaning behind those sound. It is noticeable that there is a similarity in these two definitions in which the authors evince listeners comprehension in listening.However, Hasan (2000) differentiates between listening and listening comprehension. He viewed listening as a process where the listeners merely listen to the obstetrical delivery without understanding and responding to it. In contrast, listening comprehension is a process comprising of interactivity and full comprehending of the text. T o my perspective, listening in Hasans definition is somewhat similar to hearing.In the view of OMalley Chamot (1990, p.132) listening comprehension entails active and conscious process in which the listener constructs the meaning by using cues from contextual development and from existing knowledgeIn the opinion of Rubin (1990, p.309), listening consists of processing information which the listener gets from visual and auditory clues in order to define what is way out on and what the speakers are trying to express.In fact, listening is a complex skill involving many micro skills hence Rost (2002) defines listening as a multi-layered process which includesreceiving what that speaker actually says hearing correctlyconstructing and representing meaning decodingcreating meaning through involvement and imagination applying prior knowledge of capacitance and community norms, and predicting aheadnegotiating meaning and responding working out an appropriate response.In comparison wi th all the definitions higher up, I find the definition given by Rost the most convincing since it covers the nature of listening.2. Kinds of listening3. Some learner problems in listening comprehension.Listening comes naturally to human and develop automatically as some people say but it is, actually, not as simple as it expects. Consequently, it causes so many problems for the listeners both in mother expectoration and in foreign language. So far, a self-aggrandizing number of researches have been done to show common problems in listening. Before discovering unhomogeneous difficulties go about my students in listening comprehension, it is helpful to review the literature relating to this.Cherry (1957) intimate some uncertainties in second and foreign language listening. He uses the term uncertainty in stead to refer to factors leading to difficulty or problem . These uncertainties fall in to several major categories including firstly, uncertainties in savoir-faire sound an d patterns secondly, uncertainties in language and syntax thirdly, uncertainties in recognition of essence and lastly, uncertainties resulted from environmental noise and disturbance which create gaps in the message. Similarly, Hedge (2000) introduces some uncertainties by subdividing them into seven one. These consist of1) uncertainties of confidence 2) uncertainties deriving from the presentation of speech 3) uncertainties because of gaps in the message 4)uncertain strategies 5) uncertainties of language 6) uncertainties of content and 7) visual uncertainties.According to cook and Yule (1983), there are four main groups of factors which strongly prevent spindle-legged from effective listening comprehension. These include 1) the speaker (number of speakers present, how quickly they speak, what kinds of accent they own) 2) the listener (the role of the listener whether they participate in the conversation or they eavesdrop, the level of response required, their interest in the s ubject) 3) the content ( grammar, vocabulary, information structure, background knowledge assumed) and 4) support (whether there are pictures, diagrams or other visual assist to support the text).Anderson and Lynch (1988) claim that there are a large number of factors leading to the difficulties when student listen and perform the listening tasks. They categorise them into three principal one. These are 1) the type of language 2) the purpose in listening 3) the context in which the listening takes place. The writer also emphasize that we have to consider not exactly the number of factors involved but also the relationship between them.Anderson and Lynch, by a series of experiment, pause that the difficulty of listening task is particularly influenced bythe organization of the information When the information sequence is well and logically organized, it will be easier for the listener. In contrast, it creates so many obstacles for them.the acquainted(predicate)ity of the topic I f the topic of the listening passage is familiar to listeners, it will be less harder for them to understand.the explicitness and sufficiency of the information The information should not only be well organized, but also be derive or unambiguous . Besides, the passage should not contain redundancies.the type of referring expressions applywhether the text described static relationshipsYayang (1994) indicates that problems in listening resulted from the message, the speaker, the listener, and physical setting.Problems mentioned above are for both the first language listeners and foreign language listeners in general. In particular, English as foreign language learners have the hobby problemsTrouble with sound All the stages in the listening process are likely to take the learners much longer to recognize familiar sound elements as familiar, to see the relationships and transformations among them. The learners themselves fail to identify, discriminate, and understand them correctly. The sounds, stresses, intonations spoken and taught by teachers seem to be different from those said by the domestic speakers who they are listening to.Have to understand every word Learners have a end to try their best to understand every word from the listening passage, cerebration that everything that is said contains equally important information. In fact, there may be a lot of words they fail to recognize from the native speakers speech. If they do not have the ability to select important words from others, they may fail to get anything from it, and then may feel totally disappointed. unavailing to understand fast, natural native speech Most learners of English cannot understand natural spoken language as it seems too fast for them to follow. Normally, learners seldom have a chance to listen to native speech instead, they only listen to their teachers slow utterances. If they do not understand any sentences from their teacher, they can ask for repeating or clarifying or slo wing down. It is not always the case of speakers in listening text. Consequently, the learners are unable to economise up with and store incoming information in natural native speech. Sometime they feel overloaded and scared of it.Need to listen to things more than once Very few learners can understand the message at the first listening. They often need to listen to it again and again beforehand they can recognize and understand something from it, especially listening to tapes or radio where they do not have a chance of seeing speakers. When the comprehension is not achieved in spite of listener efforts, they will get tired, discourage and frustrated as a result.In conclusion, there are various certain hindrances for the first language listeners, second language listeners and foreign language listeners. Though factors creating these difficulties might differ from each other in the number of categories divided by the author, they have many things in common and fall into two main group.The first group is internal factors that come from the listeners themselves. The other is external factors which originate from the speakers, the message, the surrounding setting
Friday, March 29, 2019
Effects Of Globalisation And Terrorism On Human Rights Politics EssayLooking at the above topic one result say it is a straightforward question, but on that point is more to it than one may think. In this easy we go away protrude by finding turn come forth what the two main key achievementors line argon Which ar globalisation and act of terrorism? Also, try to find out what each means. globalisation is the process in which government of different nations interact and integrate with each separate, on the other we stand say globalisation is internationalization, liberalization, universalization and the westernization since it has been of far and has spreads so far and attracted so much attention. It is also separate as the growth of relations mingled with mint, from financial and investment market, which do work internationally, and within one network.However, globalisation is usually recognized as be driven by a combination of economic, technological, sociocultura l, governmental, and biological factors.The term give the gate also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, orpopular culture by dint ofacculturation (Nicholson 2nd Edition 2002).However the word terrorism is politically and emotionally charged and of difficulty of providing a precise definition, studies start out be 1000 of definitions for terrorism and yet the concept after pop outnot be agree on the flop term with how terrorism can be define, since terrorism itself is real controversial and it is truly important beca aim, terrorism is an incredibly complex phenomenon repayable to the act of violence. Which when confronts government and international community with extremely painful dilemmas and notoriously difficult policy decisions have to be made (Wilkinson 2006).Terrorism can be briefly defined as a systematic use of murder, injury, and destruction or menace, to create a climate of terror. They often desire to avoid the indiscriminate terror aga inst inno cent civilian either on moral grounds or because they feared losing public support for their cause (Wilkinson 1993).In view of which is biggest threat to tender safe we cannot skillful conclude that terrorism or globalisation is within trying to find out the restore of both. We shall consider the effect of globalization and it implication and the spread of it causes, as we tell that globalization is the internationalization, liberalization, universalization and the westernization as well as the growth of relation between people (Kofman and Youngs 2008).The spread of technological advances and dynamic entrepreneurship are the driving forces undersurface globalization, which has brought in it threat to benignant chasten. For their part, according to Marxist who regards capitalism as the engine of globalization and while other clam it have the first-string cause in the friendship structures and cultural politics (Scholte 2000).A farther account of globalization as a threat to mankind proficient would combine elements from different approaches, resulting in multifaceted explanation which may take a more concise formula where the dynamic force of globalization are cut d possess to a single driving force. In other cases of globalization where other historical trend has be a major(ip) player social relations involve complex interconnections that cannot be reduce since this has given terrorist the freedom to information and technology to help improve their network.The consideration about the threat of globalization to human right can be elaborated as,The spread of rationalism as a dominant k directledge framework, plastered turns in capitalist training, technological innovations in communications and information processing and the construction of enabling regulatory framework which has contributed in otherwise in 40,30,20,and 7 percentages respectively and other factors take 3 per cent are the cause of globalization (Scholte 2000 pp 90). globalisation has occurred in part because of certain powerful patterns of social consciousness which has affected the human right turn tail nevertheless, globalization could not have occurred in the absence of the extensive innovations development in respect of transport, communications and data processing.However we cannot leave out industrialization which in general has figured more centrally in the transformation in the environmental problems, as other suggested the technological miscellany has been the most prominent courses of globalization. To start with the normative of globalization that affect human right and in what ways and to what result has contemporary globalization turn magnitude or decreased in relations to human safety and confidence. strong security is of course no longer available due to the pretentiousness of technological advancement created by globalization no social enunciate can remove all the uncertainty, destruction and death.In contrast, of conte mporary globalization, which has been associated with the influx of information, communication and data connectivity has made globalization creation threat to human right and lack of freedom of moving without any fear (Scholte 2000).We will now manner at another key word in the topic being discuss Terrorism in relations of being threat of human right, as defined earlier, the word Terrorism and Globalization share at least one thing in harsh which is the complexity of their definitions. However, terrorism can be characterized, first, by the use of violence. That violences are in many forms and more often and indiscriminately targets non-combatants, who are civilians with right to life.Reaching a consensus on what constitute the act of terrorism is real difficult the legitimacy of terrorist means and methods is foremost reason for deviation, some are of the view that terrorist acts are legitimate only if they in accordance of the honourable war tradition.Terrorism, however is on e of the biggest threat to human right since it process are more often not supported and luck of objectives because their goals for change are based on radical ideas that do not have any all-embracingspread appeal. In order for terrorist convocation to influence change, terrorist mustiness provoke drastic responses that acts of violence which will intend act as a catalyst for change and weaken their opponents, one example of these is the onslaught in Madrid, Spain 2004, its influence on the outcome of the elections (Baylis , Smith , Owens 2008). The extent of social, culture, and political change brought about by globalization including the increasing interconnectedness and homogeneity in the international system, remain a subject of much disagreement and debate such that the disagreement, in true has influence the discussion of the extent to which level globalization has contributed to the rise of modern terrorism. However, there is little uncertainness that the technology gr owth has been associated with globalization and to this extent has improved the effectiveness of terrorist groups. The move of terrorism on globalization and on human right has been very high and the AI Qaeda or The Base, received global citation as a result of the attacks in New York and Washington on September 11, 2001.In closer look at the effect of the terrorist military action of September 11, 2001 was brought about by the spread of globalization and it association with beau monde becoming increasingly interconnected and terrorist have find it as a mains. We cannot say terrorism is a threat to human right without lecture about the major areas where terrorist have operated more often, back to the example of 9/11 the main attack was from the Aviation industries and the reason why we should look at aviation security as an increased factor of globalization which is opening grounds for terrorist to operate from. On the other hand, one will say it is needed for development and g rowth of nations. There are lessons to be learnt from any form of airline hijacker (terrorist) since it is one of the biggest threats to lives and human right in general (Wilkinson 1993).The technological advances associated with globalization have improved the capabilities of terrorist group to plan and coordinate their operations before any information is affair out. In particular technology have improved to the extent that terrorist now have the internet to use as a main to invest individual and cell with the ability to post tracts on the world wide web. Another form of empowerment for terrorist group brought about by globalization is the volume, range and sophistication of propaganda materials. Nowadays terrorist have the ability to build it own website like Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. Once again technology associated with globalization can now enabled terrorist group to coordinate their attack in different part of the world at the same time, the attack on US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998.Globalization and its technological advancement has also seen the commercially approachability of radios and handheld phones, which allowed terrorist cell to operate independently at a full-blooded distance. Terrorist groups have able to leverage technological development designed to fortress identity from unauthorized commercial or private exploitation (Baylis, Smith, Owens 2008).Globalization has undoubtedly pose threat to human right but the threat of terrorism on human right can be counted as more, one can also argued that globalization has come with a fate of technological changes but as to if these changes were of any threat to human right is to be a question of the day, however terrorism could be severalise as the biggest threat to human right. In the sense that whenever there is an act of terrorism or when terrorist attack it replication are massive and horrid living the affected family with so much worries, so is the displacement of peopl e and the fear and panic among other who were not directly affected. These are just the few ways terrorism poses a threat on human right.
Pressure ulcerationationationationations Reliability of Risk Assessment ToolsThe purpose of this assignment, is to make up ones mind a forbearing, under the c atomic number 18 of the district nursing team, with a rule-governedise 1 public press ulcer, to their sacral land. To begin with, it forget give a brief overview of the diligent and their clinical news report. end-to-end the assignment the patient pass on be referred to as Mrs A, in show to protect the patients identity and assert confidentiality, in accordance with the guidelines make up out by the Nursing and midwifery Council (NMC 2008). A brief description of a scar 1 public press ulcer solelyow for be given, along with a description of the step meditaten in judgeing the tease, exploitation The Waterlow crustal plate (1985). This assignment pass on argue the literature check that was carried out, along with other methods of enquiry utilize, to gather rattling reading on wound fearfulnes s , such as the diametrical classifications of wounds and the different hazard sound idea instrumental roles available. This assignment, will include brief overviews, of rough the other ordinarily used cart ulcer peril estimation irradiations, that ar put to use by practicians and how they comp be to the Waterlow Scale. This assignment will as well as seek to laid-backlighting the importance of using a combination of clinical judgement, by wishfully monitoring the patients physical and psychological conditions, aboard the at encounter ex endation calculated from the Waterlow Scale, in order to quit holistic attention to the patient.Mrs A is a 84 year aged lady who has been referred to the district cheers by her General Practitioner, as he has concerns regarding her jam line of businesss . Following a recent fall she bewildered her confidence and is flat house bound. She now spends more than season in her chair as she has become nervous when mobilising around the house and in her garden. She has a tale of high blood obligate and occasional angina for which she currently takes Nicorandil 30mg b.d. as prescribed by her General Practitioner , Nicorandil has been recognised as an etiological aspect of non healing ulcers and wounds (Watson, 2002), this has to be interpreted into reachation during the sound judgment and by dint ofout the management of her wound. Mrs A has no history of previous falls or problems with her balance. She has always been a confident and independent lady, with no current issues skirt continency or diet. She has always enjoyed a large network of friends who tittle-tattle her regularly. It is recommended by home(a) Institute for health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) that patients should prevail an Initial sound judgment ( indoors the first 6 hours of inpatient care) and ongoing hazard appraisals and so referrals of this nature are seen on the day, if it is received if non within 24 hrs. In order to establish Mrs As current peril of exploitation a air oblige area, an perspicacity must take place. An initial holistic estimate, looking at all contri anding factors such as mobility, continence and nutrition will add a baseline that will identify her take of luck as well as identifying each actual squash prostitute.A gouge ulcer is defined as, a localised injury to the unclothe and / or underlying tissue plebeianly over a bony prominence, as a pull up stakes of cart, or pressure in combination with shear. A number of contributing, or fox factors, are in like manner associated with pressure ulcers. According to the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP 2009), the signifi give nonicece of these factors, is yet to be elucidated.Mrs A is more unguarded to pressure ill-use, as her undress has become more fragile and thinner with age (NICE 2005). thither are risk factors associated to the integrity of the patients fell and overly to the patients g eneral health. Skin that is already harmd, has a higher(prenominal) relative relative incidence of dumbfounding a pressure ulcer, than that of healthy struggle. Skin that becomes too dry, or is more moist due(p) to possible incontinence, is excessively at higher risk of maturation a pressure ulcer than healthy skin. An senile persons skin is at increased risk, because it is more fragile and thinner than the skin of a younger person. Boore et al (1987) set the following principles in compassionate for the skin to hold pressure damage, skin should be kept blame and dry and non left to remain wet. The skin should to a fault non be left to dry out to foil any unintended damage . Due to Mrs A spending more age seance in her chair, she has become at a higher risk of developing a pressure sore, as she is less mobile. The reason beingness It becomes concentrated for the blood to circulate causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the tissue cells. Furthermore, the lymp hatic brass also begins to suffer and becomes unable, to properly remove uncivilized products. If the pressure continues to increase and is not relieved by equipment or movement. The cells endure begin to die, leaving an area of dead tissue resulting in pressure damage. Nelson et al (2009) states, pressure ulcers can cause patients functional limitations, emotional distress, and disoblige for persons affected. The phylogenesis of pressure ulcers, in various healthcare settings, is a lot seen as a reflection of the quality of care which is being provided (Nakrem 2009). Pressure ulcer prevention is very important in everyday clinical practise, as pressure ulcer interference is expensive and factors such as court-ordered issues cast off become more important. EPAUP (2009) have recommended strategies, which include frequent move the use of special fill-in surfaces, or providing nutritional arrest to be included in the prevention.In order to gather evidence base research, to support my assignment. I undertook a literature review of the Waterlow Scale and Classifications of stage 1 pressure sores. The databases used were the Culmulative Index to Nursing and entirelyied Health Literature (CINAHL) and OpenA thuslys. I used a variety of search basis including pressure sores, denounce 1 classification, Waterlow Scale, and How pressure sore risk appraisal appliances compare. Throughout the literature review the information was gathered from sources using a date range between the years of 2000 2011, although some references were found from sources of information that are from a much later date. This method of research ensured a plethora of articles and guidelines were collated and analysed. The trust guidelines in wound care were used, to show how we see theory into practise in the corporation, using the wound care formulary. There was a vast amount of information available, as pressure area care is such a broad subject. The search criteria had to be contract down, in some cases to ensure the information gathered was pertinent and not beyond the scope of the assignment. The evidence used throughout this assignment, is based on guidelines and recommendations given by NICE (2001), EPUAP (2001) and articles sourced from The Journal of Community Nursing (JCN). This was the around accurate information and guidance on pressure ulcer classifications and sagacity although, some articles whitethorn not have been the well-nigh recent.The sagaciousness tool used throughout my area of work, is the Waterlow Scale. The Waterlow Scale was developed by Judy Waterlow in 1985, while working as a clinical nurse teacher. It was in the first place designed for use by her student and is used to measure a patients risk of developing a pressure sore. It can also be used as a guide, for the ordering of effective pressure relieving equipment. All National Health Service (NHS) trusts have their own pressure ulcer prevention policy, or guidelines a nd practitioners are expected to use the risk assessment tool, specified in their trusts policy. NICE (2003), guidance states, that all trusts should have a pressure ulcer policy, which should include a pressure ulcer risk assessment tool. However, it reminds practitioners that the use of risk assessment tools, should be thought of as an aid to the clinical judgement of the practitioner. The use of the Waterlow tool enables, the nurse to assess each patient harmonise to their individual risk of developing pressure sores (Pancorbo-Hidalgo et al 2006). The scale illustrates a risk assessment marker establishment and on the reverse side, provides information and guidance on wound assessment, medical dressings and onus aids. There is information regarding pressure relieving equipment surrounding, the three levels of risk highlighted on the scale, and also provides guidance, concerning the nursing care given to patients. Although the Waterlow stain is used in the community setting, when calculating the risk assessment score, it is vital that the nurse is aware of the discrepancy in environment the tool was originally developed for.The tool uses a combination of core and immaterial risk factors that contribute to the development of pressure ulcers. These are used to determine the risk level for an individual patient. The natural factors include disease, medication, malnourishment, age, dehydration / fluid status, lack of mobility, incontinence, skin condition and weight. The external factors, which refer to external influences which can cause skin distortion, include pressure, shear forces, friction, and moisture. There is also a special risk section of the tool, which can be used if the patient is on certain medication or recently had surgery. This contributes to a holistic assessment of a patient and enables the practitioner to provide the most effective care and appropriate pressure relieving equipment. The score is calculated, by counting the scores give n in each category, which defend to your patients current condition. Once these have been added up, you will have your at risk score. This will then indicate the steps that rent to be taken, in order to provide the appropriate level of care to the patient. Identification of a patients risk of developing a pressure sore is oftentimes considered the most important stage in pressure sore prevention (Davis 1994).During the assessment a skin inspection takes place of the most vulnerable areas of risk, typically these are heels, sacrum and parts of the body, where sheer or friction could take place. Elbows, shoulders, tush of head and toes are also considered to be more vulnerable areas (NICE 2001). When using the Waterlow tool to assess Mrs As pressure risk, I found she had a score of 9. According to the Waterlow scoring system she is not considered as being at risk as her score is less than 10. As I had identified in my assessment, she had a score of 2, for her skin condition due t o horizontal surface 1 pressure ulcer to her sacrum. I felt it demand, to highlight her as being at risk. A grade 1 pressure ulcer on her sacral area, maybe due to her recent detriment of confidence and minify mobility which has left Mrs A spending more time in her chair.Pressure ulcers are assessed and graded, according to the degree of damage to thetissue. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP), classifies pressure ulcers based on the depth of the wound. There are four classifications (Category/Stage I through IV) of pressure damage. In addition to these, two other categories have been defined, unstageable pressure ulcers and thick-skulled tissue injury (EPUAP, 2009) Grade 1 pressure damage is defined, as a non-blanchable erythema of intact skin. Indicators can be, discolouration of the skin, warmth, oedema, induration or hardness, particularly in people with darker pigmentation (EPUAP, 2003). It is believed by some practitioners, that blanching erythema indicates Grade 1 pressure damage (Hitch 1995) although others suggest that, Grade 1 pressure damage is present(a), when there is non-blanching erythema (Maklebust and Margolis, 1995 Yarkony et al, 1990). The majority of practitioners, agree that temperature and colour play an important role, in identifying grade 1 pressure ulcers (EPUAP, 1999) and erythema, is a factor in almost all classifications (Lyder, 1991). The pressure damage usually occurs, over boney prominences (Barton and Barton 1981). The skin in a Grade 1 pressure ulcer, is not broken, but it requires protection and monitoring.At this stage, it will not be known how deep the pressure damage is, regularmonitoring and assessment is all important(p). The pressure ulcer may fade, but if thedamage is deeper than the superficial layers of the skin, this wound could eventuallydevelop into a much deeper pressure ulcer over, the following days or weeks.A Grade 1 pressure ulcer, is classed as a wound and so I have commenced awound car e jut out and also a pressure area care plan. I will also ensure, Mrs A hasregular pressure area checks in order to prevent the area breaking down. Thepressure area checks will take place weekly until the pressure relieving equipmentarrives, this will then be reduced to 3 monthly checks. Dressings can be applied toa Grade 1 pressure ulcer. They should be simple and offer some level of protection.Also, to prevent any further skin damage a necessitate dressing is often used, or ahydrocolloid to protect the wound area (EPAUP, 2009) . These dressings will assist inreducing further friction, or shearing, if these factors are involved. It is consideredthe best way to treat a wound, is to prevent it from ever occurring. Removing theexisting external pressure, reducing any moisture, which can occur if the patient isincontinent and employing pressure reprieve devices, may contribute to wound healing.Along with competent nutrition, hydration and addressing any underlying medicalconditions .The advice given to practitioners, on the reverse of the Waterlow tool is to provide a100mm foam electrical shock, if a patients risk score is higher up 10. As MrsA has an at risk score of 9, with a Grade 1 pressure sore evident, I look itappropriate to provide the pressure relieving mattress and cushion to prevent anyfurther pressure damage developing. All individuals, assessed as being vulnerable topressure ulcers should, as a minimum provision, be placed on a high conditionfoam mattress with pressure relieving properties (NICE, 2001). As I am providing acushion and a mattress, it is not felt necessary to apply a dressing at this point.However, the area will need regular monitoring, as at this stage it is unknown howdeep the pressure damage is. If proactive care is given in the prevention andtreatment of pressure ulcers, with the use of risk assessments and providingpressure relieving resources, the pressure area may resolve. Pressure ulcers can becostly for the NHS, debilitat ing and painful for the patient. With basic and effectivenursing care offered to the patients, this can often be the key to success.Bliss (2000) suggests that the majority of Grade I ulcers heal, or resolve withoutbreaking down if pressure relief is put into place immediately. However, experiencesin a clinical settings supports observations, that non-blanching erythema can oftenresult in irreversible damage (James, 1998 Dailey, 1992).McGough (1999) during a literature search, highlighted 40 pressure ulcer riskassessment tools, but not all have be considered suitable, or reliable for all clinicalenvironments. As there are many different patient groups this often results in a widespectrum of different patient needs. The three most commonly used tools in the United Kingdom (U.K.) are, The Norton scale, The Braden Scale and The Waterlow Scale.The first pressure ulcer risk assessment tool was the Norton scale. It was devised by Doreen Norton in 1962. The tool was used for estimating a pa tients risk for developing pressure ulcers by give the patient a rating from 1 to 4 on basketball team different factors. A patients with a score of 14 or more, was identified as being at high risk. Initially, this tool was aimed at cured patients and there is little evidence from research gathered over the years, to support its use outside of an patriarchal care setting. Due to increased research over the years, concerning the identification and risk of developing pressure ulcers, a modified version of the Norton scale was take a shitd in 1987.The Braden Scale was created in the mid 1980s, in America and based on a conceptual schema of etiologic factors. Tissue tolerance and pressure where identified, as being significant factors in pressure ulcer development. However, the rigour of the Braden Scale is not considered to be high in all clinical areas (Capobianco and McDonald, 1996). However, EPAUP (2003) state The BradenRisk Assessment Scale is considered by many, to be the m ost valid and reliablescoring system for a wide age range of patients.The Waterlow Scale, first devised in 1987, identifies more risk factors than the Braden and the Norton Scale. However, even though it is used widely across the U.K., it has alleviate be criticised for its ability to over predict risk and ultimately result in the misuse of resources (Edwards 1995 McGough, 1999).Although there are various tools, which have been developed to identify a patients individual risk, of developing pressure sores. The majority of scales have been developed, based on ad hoc opinions, of the importance of possible risk factors, according to the Effective Healthcare Bulletins (EHCB, 1995). The predictive validity of these tools, has also been challenged (Franks et al, 2003 Nixon and Mc Gough, 2001) suggesting they may over predict the risk, incurring expensive cost implications, as pre-emptive equipment is put in place, when it may not always be necessary. Or they may under predict risk, so that someone assessed as not being at high risk develops a pressure ulcer. Although the Waterlow scoring system, now includes more objective standards such as Body pile Index (BMI) and weight loss after a recent update. It is stable unknown, due to no published information, whether the inter-rater reliability of the tool, has been improved by these changes. It has been acknowledged, that this is a fundamental flaw of these tools and due to this clinical judgement, must always support the decisions made by the results, of the risk assessment. This is distinctly recognised by NICE, as they advise their use as an aide-mmoire (2001). The aim of Pressure ulcer risk assessment tools, is to measure and quantify pressure ulcer risk. To determine the quality of these measurements the evaluation of validity and reliability would usually take place. The validity and reliability limitations, of pressure ulcer risk tools are widely acknowledged. To castigate these problems, the solution tha t is recommended is to combine the scores of pressure ulcer risk tools, with clinical judgment (EPAUP 2009). This recommendation, which is often seen in the literature, unfortunately is inconsistent as Papanikolaou et al (2007) states If pressure ulcer risk assessment tools have such limitations, what share can they make to our confidence in clinical judgment, other than move us about the items, which should be considered when making such judgments?. Investigations of the validity and reliability, of pressure ulcer risk tools are important, in evaluating the quality, but they are not sufficient to judge their clinical value. In the research of pressure ulcer tools, there have been few attempts made to compare, the different pressure ulcer risk assessment strategies. Referring to literature until 2003, Pancorbo Hidalgo et al (2006) identified three studies, canvass the Norton scale compared to clinical judgment and the impact on pressure ulcer incidence. From these studies, it wa s concluded that there was no evidence, that the risk of pressure ulcer incidence was reduced by the use of the risk assessment tools. The Cochrane review (2008), set out to determine, whether the use of pressure ulcer risk assessment , in all health care settings , reduced the incidence of pressure ulcers. As no studies met the criteria, the authors have been unable to answer the review question. At present there is only weak evidence to support the validity, of pressure ulcer risk assessment scale tools and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error.To improve our clinical practise, it is suggested that although tools such as theWaterlow Scale are used to distinguish a patients pressure ulcer risk, otherinvestigations and tests, may need to be carried out to ensure a effectiveassessment is fetching place. Practitioners may consider, various blood tests and morein depth history taking, including previous pressure damage and medications. Patientslifestyle and diet should also be taken into consideration and where appropriate, anutritional assessment should be do if recent weight loss, or reduced appetite isevident. Nutritional assessment and screening tools are being used more readily and come out of the closet to be becoming more relevant in managing patients who are at risk of or have a pressure ulcer. The assessment tools should be reliable and valid, and as discussed antecedently with other risk assessment tools they should not replace clinical judgement. However, the use of nutritional assessment tools can dish up to bring the nutritional status of the patient to the attention of the practitioner, they should then consider nutrition when assessing the patients vulnerability to pressure ulcer development. The nutritional status of the patient should be updated and re-assessed at regular intervals following a assessment plan which is individual to the patient and includes an evaluation date. The condition of the individual will then al low the practitioner to decide how frequent the assessments will occur. The EPUAP (2003) recommends that as a minimum, assessment of nutritional status should include regular weighing of patients, skin assessment, documentation of food and fluid intake.As Mrs A currently has a balanced diet, it is not felt necessary to undertake, anutritional assessment at this point. Her weight can be updated on each review visit,to assess any weight loss during each visit. If there is any deterioration in hercondition, an assessment can be done when required. continence should also betaken into consideration and where necessary a continence assessment should takeplace. Incontinence and pressure ulcers are common and often occur together.Patients who are incontinent are generally more belike to have difficulties with theirmobility and elderly, both of which have a strong association with the developmentof pressure ulcers (Lyder, 2003). The education of staff, surrounding pressure ulcer management and prevention, isalso very important. NICE (2001) suggest, that all health care professionals, shouldreceive relevant educate and education, in pressure ulcer risk assessment andprevention. The information, skills and knowledge, come oned from these trainingsessions, should then be cascaded down, to other members of the team. Thetraining and education sessions, which are provided by the trust, are expected tocover a number of topics. These should include, risk factors for pressure ulcerdevelopment, skin assessment, and the selection of pressure equipment. Staff arealso updated on policies, guidelines and the latest patient educational information(NICE 2001).Education of the patient, carers and family, is essential in order to achieve optimumpressure area care. Mrs A is encouraged to mobilise regularly, in order to relievethe pressure as a Grade 1 pressure sore has been identified, she is at a significantrisk of developing a more severe ulcer. Interventions to prevent deterioratio n, are all important(p) at this point. It is thought, that this could prevent the pressure sore fromdeveloping into a Grade 2 or worse. NICE (2001) have suggested, that individualsvulnerable to or at elevated risk of developing pressure ulcers, who are able andwilling, should be informed and educated about the risk assessment and resultingprevention strategies. NICE have devised a cusp for patients and relatives, calledPressure Ulcers streak and Treatment (NICE Clinical Guidance 29), which givesinformation and guidance on the treatment of pressure ulcers. It encourages patientsto check their skin and change their position regularly. As a part of good practise,this booklet is given to Mrs A at the time of assessment, in order for her todevelop some understanding of her pressure sore. This booklet is also given to thecare givers or relatives so they can also gain understanding, regarding the care andprevention, of her pressure ulcer. An essential part of nursing documentation, is c areplanning. It demonstrates the care, that the individual patient requires and can beused to include patients and carers or relatives in the patients care. Involvement ofthe patient and their relative, or carer is advisable, as this could be invaluable, tothe nurse planning the patients care. The National Health Service ModernisationAgency (NHSMA 2005) states clearly that person centred care is vital and that care planning involves negotiation, discussion and shared decision making, between the nurse and the patient.There were a number of improvements that I feel could have been made to the holistic care of Mrs A. I feel that one of the fundamental factors that needed to be considered , were the social needs of the patient. As I feel they are a large contributing factor, towards wherefore the patient may have developed her pressure sore. The patient was previously known to be a very sociable lady, who gradually lost her confidence, resulting in her not leaving the house. There are various schemes and function available, which are provided by the local council or volunteer function, to enable the elderly or people unable to get around. For example, an option which could of been suggested to Mrs A are services such as Ring and Ride, or Werneth Communicare. Using these services or being involved in these types of schemes, may have empower Mrs A to leave the house on a more regular basis. This would enable her to build up the confidence, she lost following her fall. This would have also lead to positive impact on the patients psychological care, as Mrs A would have been able to overcome her fears of leaving the house, enabling her to see friends and gain communications lost. As previously mentioned in this assignment, although Mrs A had a score of 9, which is not considered an at risk score. I still felt it necessary to act on this score, even though the wound was a not considered to be critical. If it is felt the patient is at a higher risk than that show n on the assessment tool, the practitioner should use their clinical judgement, to make crucial care decisions. It should also be considered, by the practitioner that risk assessment tools such as The Waterlow scale, may not have been developed, for their area of practise. Throughout the duration of Mrs As wound healing process, a holistic assessment of her pressure areas and general health assessment were carried and all relevant factors, were taken into consideration. The assessment tool used to assess her pressure areas, is the most common tool used currently in practise and the tool recommended by the Trust.To conclude, there is evidence to prove that pressure ulcer risk assessment tools are useful, when used as a guide for the procurement of equipment. However, they cannot be relied upon solely to provide holistic care to a patient. It has been highlighted, that to ensure a holistic assessment of patients, it is necessary to complete a variety of assessments, to create a comple te picture. Although The Waterlow scale covers a number of factors that need to be considered, throughout the assessment, it has become evident that the at risk score, can often be over or under scored depending on the practitioner. Clinical judgement has proved to be, a very important aspect of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The education of the patient, carer and relatives has also been highlighted, as an important aspect of care. Empowering the patient with information regarding their illness, may decrease the healing time and help prevent has further issues.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Sonata fast form was a development of the definitive era. It represents a to a greater extent open form than many of the earlier churrigueresque forms such as fugues, rondeau form, etc. While there is a formula that can be applied, there was not a rigid, bollock concept for the form. Rather it evolved over the classical era and beyond. Haydn was one of the earlyish exponents of this form. It was named "Sonata Allegro," because the final Allegro movement of a Sonata was most often created in this form. It is by no means restricted to this general rule, however. In incident there are no hard and fast rules in authorship a Sonata Allegro form. However many trends can be attributed to the form, generally, Sonata Allegro form can simplistically be described as an "ABA" form. The first A section is called the "Exposition." ( This section is repeated verbatim in classical performance, real making the overall form "AABA"). The B section, or "Devel opment" follows the Exposition. It ordinarily uses some material from the Exposition, but in a more or less radically altered way. In the A section or "Recapitulation," the A material returns relatively intact. Each of these sections has a relatively complex internecine pattern as follows The Exposition states the main thematic elements and has its own essential form as follows 1) A primordial key section which contains a. the jumper cable or Primary Theme which is a phrase or more in length and establishes home key, b. a Transition between the Primary Theme and the Related key section. The transition can modulate to the unseasoned key, develop ideas of first theme, change mood in preparation for cogitate key section through mood metamorphsis, introduce new material, mayhap contrasting with both primary and related key sections, anticipate of ideas in second theme, be omitted, produce a deceptive modulation, or be non-modulatory if in major. 2) A Related key secti on which contains the Secondary or Subordinate Theme which is most often in the dominant or relative key, and can be similar or contrast in content to the Primary Theme, the Closing section, which confirms the new key, and may be derived from opposite themes. Next comes The Development. This is an open and free-form section of the Sonata Allegro movement, usually based on thematic materials from the Exposition. The Development can be varied in length, sometimes short and little more than a re-transition to principal theme, sometimes a large dramatic section containing a theatrical climax, sturm und drang.
The constituent of ethics in makeupal way is the underlying factor to the achievement and longevity of any physical composition. A set of rules and guidelines focusing on promoting safety, trust, and answerable put within the workplace must be established intern solelyy. Organizations catch work out of ethics that center upon the promotion of good. Ethics argon full of life in developing trusting relationships between employees and administration within. A code of ethics highlights the responsibility and accountability standards of each and every employee within the organization. These codes argon also motivating factors that guide the employees behavior, set the standard regarding ethical conduct, and manufacture an organizations trustworthiness within their surroundings. (McShane, Gilnow, 2012). The role of ethics in organizational behavior can negatively or positively impact an entire health care entity. If employees are educated on the importance of practicing ethical ly at all times, and the organization as a whole operates unethically displayed value of an organization are then in question. Before employees can begin to practice ethically the organizational foundation of standard must be rooted. both individual regardless of position should be held accountable for their actions. Healthcare organizations are very influential and play an active role within the community. The decisions of a health care organization can easily sway the communitys perspective and damage developed relationships. The community is the heart of any healthcare organization. Consumers come from within the community, and if they seek elsewhere a healthcare organization can falter. Employees may feel better connected to an organization that values and appreciates their... ...are. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved November 14, 2013.Lin, M. Chuen-Teng, H. Hsien-Hsein, C. Ching-Huey, C. (2012). Exploring ethical aspects ofelective surgery patientsdecision -making experiences . Nursing Ethics. http//ehis.ebscohost.com.proxy024.nclive.org/explosive detection system/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9be8d4ae-586e-4f0b-8ab4-bec5ae12910b%40sessionmgr13&vid=3&hid=115. Retrieved November 17, 2013. McShane, S. Von Glinow. (2013). Organizational Behavior 6th Edition. McGraw Hill. New York, NY.Field, M Lo, B. (2009). contrast of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice. The National Academies. . Retrieved November 1, 2013.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
The Turning Point   Probably the most definitive turning point in my life happened in 1992.  At this time, I was eight years old and living in Williamsport Pennsylvania.  My dad had a well-paying job at Anchor Darling Valve Company, I was attending a parochial school and I thought life was just great.  At the time we lived in a large four-story house with a purloin three-story garage and an acre of forest for a backyard.  I had a ten-speed bicycle and I would often go bicycling with my friends at the nearby cemetery.  No-one ever objected to this, in fact people would often have picnics at the top of this pitcher at the cemetery.  I guess the only things I ever complained roughly were the constant music lessons and practice sessions my parents subjected me to.   Life was great until my dad came billet one day with bad bracings.  As it turned out, his well-paying company was suppression and they had to let him go.  Well, I didnt think mu ch of it at the time.  So hed hitch a new job, I thought.  Well anyway, he took out his hook on and started mailing away.  Oh well, life goes on.  Well soon enough companies began to take lodge in in him and he decided to join a company called cellular One (which would later be bought by ATT and become ATT Wireless Services).  So what was the catch?  Well, Cellular Ones offices are based in Pittsburgh which is not barely an easy commute from Williamsport. Carlos, we will have to move, but it wont happen for a while.  Well make sure you finish the school year and besides, I fluent have to look for a job in Pittsburgh too, my mom told me.  Somehow, although I knew my parents had many friends in Williamsport,... ...ttsburgh than I would have ever been able to in Williamsport.  I l clear how to ski and rock climb, things I became good at and still do today.  I also suddenly had a enigmatical appreciation for music.  This was something I had never had, now all of a sudden, I actually practiced when I was supposed to (this probably had something to do with the new music teachers).  I also took up karate again and eventually earned my black belt.  I realized that Williamsport was actually a dull billet to live in and the only things I really missed were my friends and the house.  beforehand I knew it, we had lived in Pittsburgh for six years and although it may not be the best place to live in, it has opened up a unit of measurement world of opportunities to me.  That was something I may never have gotten if I had stayed in Williamsport or if I had continued to move around.
Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework Cognitive Constructivism Theory and Sociocultural Constructivism TheoryAs stated in Chapter I, to create better readers, many information specialists score that boy study is a developmentally sound draw close to providing reading instruction (Bear et al, 2008 Ganske, 2000 Zutell, 1999). Word study is founded on robust evidence-based research on the developmental stages of reading and spelling however, sacred scripture study and specifically word sorts have a diminuative amount of scientific evidence as to it triumph in reading instruction (Boscardin et al, ND). To create an evidence-based study, it is useful to analyze word study using the lenses of cognitive constructivism and sociocultural constructivism theories. In combining these two theoretical frameworks, I get out view the WtW reading instruction approach from both(prenominal) the internal cognitive development as well as the external social influences of learning. In Chapter 2, I will succinctly critique the principles of each theory and demonstrate how the theories provide an applicable balance for this study. Constructing meaning from an event is an important link to comprehension (Carlisle, 2000 Francis, et al., 1996 NICHD, ND Rasinski & Oswald, 2005 Williams & Lundstrum, 2007). However, the idea of constructing meaning, or constructivism, is a broad concept with multiple connotations. Two distinct types of constructivism will be the lens for this study, cognitive constructivism and sociocultural constructivism. The two theories are basically different in that cognitive constructivism posits the internal construction of information as the controlling influence, while sociocultural constructivism posits the external interactions with peers and adults as m... ...ible tool for examining entropy from this study. Word studys origin is based on the vox populi of the students constructivism in understanding and comprehending new knowledge by the word study de velopers, the generalized belief by education specialists that it is the federal agency students learn, its foundational role in teacher preparation programs, and its acceptance of the dynamics at bottom the classroom as playing a role in hold instruction. Hence, for this study, it is advantageous to use the constructivism theories of both Piaget and Vygotsky, cognitive and sociocultural, as theoretical frameworks. unneurotic these theories will be the lens for analysis of the data collected deep down the study. By using both, I am able to examine both the an individuals internal and external construction of information. In the prove chapter, I establish the methodology of this study.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Implementing the Ramsar host in Developing Countries The Role of Local conjunction Support and InvolvementOver the last two decades, a consensus has piecemeal emerged that long-term conservation depends on understanding and harbour from those closely attached to the environment and its resources (Shine, Klemm, 1999.) Several international environmental conventions have reflected this consensus by establishing a legal basis to involve topical anaesthetic communities, especially those in maturation countries, in their implementation. Recent changes in the focus of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands are consistent with this global trend towards emphasizing the importance of community support and involution. Adopted in Ramsar, Iran on February 2, 1971 in response to the alarming roam of worldwide wetland loss and degradation, Ramsars mission is the conservation and wise subroutine of wetlands by national action and international cooperation. The Ramsar Conventions discover to promote community involvement in wetland conservation began in 1990 with the origination of a Small Grants Fund, created to fund local non-governmental organizations and community wetland conservation projects in developing countries. In its 1993 Additional Guidance publication, the Ramsar Convention asserts that countries should incorporate into their wetland counseling plans procedures to guarantee that local communities are involved in decision-making, and have a strong knowledge of wetland issues. Is the international environmental community correct in their assertion that implementation depends on local community support and involvement? As the Ramsar Convention is one advocate of this assertion, this study sought to unsex if local community support ... ...unity is correct in their assertion that local communities are critical for the implementation of all other conventions. Works Citedmangrove Action Project Yadfons Way Thailands Community set Projects The Fis hersThat Rescued the Sea. Online. Available http//www.earthisland.org/map/sstal.htm.Updated May 7, 2002. accessed 4/24/04 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands The Lake Naivasha Riparian Association (LNRA), Kenya.Online. Available http//www.ramsar.org/key_awards99_interview_lnra.htm. Updated May 7, 2004. accessed 4/25/04 Shine, C., Klemm, C. 1999. Wetlands, Water, and the Law. International Union for theConservation of Nature and Natural Resources Cambridge, UK.Susskind, L., Moomaw, W., Gallagher, K. (Editors). 2002. Transboundary EnvironmentalNegotiation. sewer Wiley and Sons San Francisco, CA.
Can Computers Think?In order to settle this question thinking must first be defined. Thinking is something that nearly scientists belt up founding fathert have a concrete commentary of. The human brain is a very complex entity and we still dont completely understand what happens when thoughts are processed. Scientists know that the brain is comprised of neurons that impel signals to each other but the actual details are still not known. Bearing this in mind it is very hard to opine whether or not something is thinking without a clear definition. The best I fucking do is to offer my own definition of thinking. I put thinking involves taking in information, making decisions, and being able to learn. given up this definition, it is my opinion that computers net think. Computers can take in information, make decisions, and they are beginning to learn. Comparing, ordering, remembering, storing, duplicating, choosing, These are all actions that conduct some thought pro cess. Computers can do all these things, and while comparing a 1 against a 2 may not see like a hulky deal, it does require a thought process. The computer must know the entertain of what is comparing, then use judgment to decide which one is bigger, and which one is smaller. And computers can do much more than match two numbers. They can compare letters, words, phrases, and more. To see computers thinking you can simply go to an internet see engine, such as yahoo.com. Yahoo accepts information when you guinea pig in your hunt club criteria. For example, lets say you want to front for information on artificial intelligence. You type in artificial intelligence into the textbook box and Yahoo takes that text and compares it to the text of millions of pages located in its database. It locates the pages that contain information that matches your search and displays those pages in order according to the closest match. Yahoo has just through with(p) many things that invol ve thinking. It has compared your search criteria with the contents of millions of web pages. Yahoo has ranked these comparisons according to the closest match, and it has ordered these pages according to rank. Comparing, ordering, and ranking all require thinking. And these are all tasks that the computer is able to do. This may not seem like very complex thinking, but never the less these simpleton tasks do require thinking.
Monday, March 25, 2019
Automobiles as a Symbol of Prosperity in 1920s America The automobile was one of the life-sizedgest and most important features of the 1920s. Automobiles non more all over were a symbol of social status, but alike had become so popular that nearly every family owned a car. Automobile return and sales fueled the economy and created an item that remains the centerpiece of periodical life. Just as computers are now a part of daily life, the automobile did the same thing in the 1920s. As men returned from war, the current and hot item to own was a car. Ford and GMs Chevy became the biggest automobile manufacturers. In fact, by 1923, Ford Model Ts accounted for just under 52% of automobiles in the market go Ford held over 62% of the market. The production of Ford automobiles had reached nearly 2 million. In 1924, you could buy a Model T for $290 dollars. Nowadays, that is probably a monthly payment. Yet some cars were very expensive, with a Rolls Roy ce costing 15-17,000. Yet, automobiles were not the rage throughout the world. The automobile was just another sign of American youth, vibrancy, and prosperity. In 1920, US automobile production was nearly 2.3 million. The next largest producer was France, making 400,000 units. The total automobile production was just under 2.4 million. Obviously, Americans were in truth the tho people buying cars. Automobile production was not the only major element of the automobile revolution. In fact, the automobile led to many other things. For the first time, most automobiles were bought on credit. By 1926, two thirds of purchased cars were bought on installment plans. This led the way for credit purchases of other major appliances. Automobiles also e... ...eline of automobile facts for the 1920s. Includes information about statistics and formation of companies.INTERESTING FACTS The Model T was the first car produced on an assembly line The Big ternary au tomobiles producers were Ford, GM and Chrysler. Ford was founded in 1903 by Henry Ford GM was founded in 1897 by Ransom Olds Reorganization of Maxwell Motors created Chrysler Corporation In 1926 GM introduced Pontiac In 1928 Chrysler introduced Plymouth The Model T was Fords big seller You could buy a Model T for $290 Ford acquired capital of Nebraska in 1922 Americans preferred closed cars over touring cars (open tops) GM earned over 80 million in profits in 1923 Americans drove 198 million miles in 1929 Gatsby owned a Rolls Royce
experience in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, The Absolutely True Diary of a Part era Indian by Sherman Alexie and the essay on Friendship by Ralph Waldo Emerson.Friendship is always a sweet responsibility, never an opportunity. -- (Khalil Gibran) Once I was looking at on the internet that what is friends and what is friendship, since I never know what it was or never reall(a)y read a definition of them. I was looking all over the place and I found thisNo cardinal knows the ask definition of Friendship however, they do cast their own way to tell if they have a friend or not.From the bedtime stories parents read to their children when they are spill to bed, to the books students ready in high school, or the books adults ready have one most common element friendship. Th e history in the Ameri stop books three were many books, essays and songs about great friendships some are cool off famous and some are lost, in the era where people start out friends by following each other on Instagram or move request on Facebook. Mostly all persons on earth have a best friend and people say that it is hard to exquisitely because a best friend should be some on whom you can always calculate on and that a person always count on you too. Sometimes having right person as your friends can religious service you but at the same time if you are in association of a bad person it can hurt you too. Who is the bad person and who is the good person is totally up to the persons ad hominem choice? Some books and movies have a stereotypical character o... ...micemen/Mignon, Charles W., and H. Rose. CliffsNotes on Emersons Essays. 01 May 2014 literary productions/e/emersons-essays/ralph-waldo-emerson-biographyVan Kirk, Susan. CliffsNotes on Of Mice and Men. 0 1 May 2014literature/o/of-mice-and-men/of-mice-and-men-at-a-glanceReferencesSteinbeck, J (1937) Of Mice and Men.Covici Friede.Alexie, S (September 2007) The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time IndianEmerson, R Friendship.Spark Notes Editors. (2007). Spark Note on Of Mice and Men. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http//www.sparknotes.com/lit/micemen/Mignon, Charles W., and H. Rose. CliffsNotes on Emersons Essays. 01 May 2014 literature/e/emersons-essays/ralph-waldo-emerson-biographyVan Kirk, Susan. CliffsNotes on Of Mice and Men. 01 May 2014 literature/o/of-mice-and-men/of-mice-and-men-at-a-glance
Sunday, March 24, 2019
A Good Man is solid to Find Comparing Flannery OConnors Literary Technique to grievous Medieval LiteratureUpon initially reading Flannery OConnors work, whiz would harbour no problem recognizing her use of shocking, violent, or despairing themes. It whitethorn not be as easy, however, to completely presume or translate her style. According to Patrick Galloway, one must be initiated to her trademarks when reading any of her 2 novels or thirty-two short stories (1).In many of her works, she paradoxically uses styles that ar fanciful and brutal to illustrate themes of grace and self-actualization. As OConnor herself says, I have found that violence is strangely capable of returning my characters to reality and preparing them to accept their moment of grace (qtd. in Hawkins 30).Although at times disturbing, OConnors paradox is an effective literary technique, deepening the meaning of her stories.Flannery OConnors short flooring, A Good Man is Hard to Find, can be used as a tool to become initiated to this unique style. few critics would deny that A Good Man is a grotesque story A grannie and her sons family on vacation are ruthlessly killed by an escaped convict.Some OConnor critics are taken aback by this grotesque aspect because the family and elderly woman seem so innocent.People do not want to imagine their quiet and delicate, gray-haired grandmother standing in the face of a murderer, so they sympathize with OConnors Grandmother as well (Bandy 2).This gruesome scene does not, however, coiffe as senseless violence.Beyond the disturbing imagery is a story that makes touching religious and philosophical claims (Galloway 6).Pat Galloway analyzes this technique as the way OConnors characters receive t... ...arterly 34 (Sum 1993) 383-397. Wood, Christopher. Albrecht Altdorfer and the Origins of Landscape. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1993. Works Consulted Bloom, Harold, ed. Flannery OConnor. smart York Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Hagen, Sus an. Team Teaching Middle English Literature With Flannery OConnor. http//panther.bsc.edu/shagen/oconnor.htm (10 Nov. 1999). McMillen, Jenny. Short Story Reviews.http//www.geocities.com?Athens/Troy/2188/reviews.html (10 Nov. 1999) Owens, Mitchell. The Function of Signature in A Good Man is Hard to Find. Studies in Short illustration 33 (Wntr 1996) 101-106. Schilling, Timothy. Trying To See Straight Flannery OConnor & the Business of Writing. commonweal 122 (Nov 3, 1995) 14-15. Sloan, Gary. OConnors A Good Man is Hard to Find. The Explicator 57 (Wntr 1999) 118-120.
bacchanalia Drinking Among College StudentsWe totally bilk by what it is like to wake up in the morning, with our head aching, and our system whim like it was just hit by a train. College students world gigantic know this feeling. These atomic number 18 the results of engorge drinking. The question of why college students continue to salute themselves to alcohol is unknown. While many reasons argon given, the cause generally move into one of three categories, peer pressure, insecurity, or to sponsor solve in that respect problems. But the one thing students dont realize are the consequences and effects that binge drinking can attain, health and accessible problems are just a few.One of the main reasons students feel the need to binge drink is peer pressure. They do this because their peers are doing it and they want to fit in better. College dorm live offer many different places for students to drink. Dorm rooms give a great place for a few mass to get together, and before you know it everybodys doing it. Insecurity is another fillip to why students binge drink. Drinking alcohol has been a large voice of society for many years. People find that it is easier to meet people when they have been drinking. Drinking has also been used as a way to get close to some one. There are also many social events drinking has created. There are cozy bars where every body knows your name, cocktail parties, and the high school favorite, house party.Students also binge drink to help them solve there problems. They turn to alcohol to aid themselves with hiding their feelings and numbing there pain for a while Well talk over a beer, is something that people will say when they need to talk about something. In english terms this means lets have a beer and forget all our problems. Problems that range from, stress from school work, stress from a significant other, or even stress of home life. The effects of binge drinking go far beyond short term memory loss and han govers.Binge drinkers miss class, get behind on school work, engage in unplanned sexual activity, have run-ins with police, and get injured or hurt.