Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Case Study polish on metabolic Abnormalities in Early Psychosis - Article ExampleThese side-effects pose a challenge because of the extra risk that they add in as well as the possible non-compliance to prescription that may result when patients fear to absent the medications because of their associated effects. The review looks at various research obliges that seek to encounter the effect of antipsychotics in order to understand their relative effects and possible side-effects. The article reviews are also used in making decisions with date to a case study of a patient under first-episode psychosis treatment using atypical antipsychotics and already showing side-effects. Introduction Psychosis treatment has relied on antipsychotics for a very long time. The first extension antipsychotics (FGAs) sink out of favoured use due to less effectiveness and a number of associated side-effects. They were replaced by second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), which are more effective. Th e FGAs were linked to a number of side-effects including extrapyramidal reactions much(prenominal) as akathasia, tachycardia, tardive dyskinesia, impotence and seizures among some other. These side-effects have necessitated the use of other drugs such as anticholinergics in order to handle the resultant side-effects such as motor side effects. ... A number of researches have been conducted to determine the effects of atypical antipsychotics on defectiveities in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as weight unit gain, otherwise known as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The MetS denotes a combination of increased waist circumference and any of the following two abnormal conditions-a low high density lipoprotein level, hypertension, and high levels of serum triglycerides and/or fasting blood glucose. The fact that both(prenominal) generations of drugs present various side-effects poses greater challenge for practitioners trying to make decisions on which medication to apply in FPP case s. The dilemma on typical versus atypical antipsychotics as well as whether to use atypical psychotics in FEP considering their potentially negative effects on diabetes and cardiovascular conditions makes this an interesting choice for review. The case study and articles review specifically reviews three research articles in relation to the case study in question. The first article reviews the development of metabolic abnormalities as a result of atypical antipsychotics on patients receiving these drugs for FEP through a loan-blend sectional, naturalistic retrospective study. The articles objective is to develop recognition of the impact of atypical antipsychotics in developing metabolic abnormalities in young patients under FEP treatment. The second article examines results from a naturalistic and prospective study in which the effects of antipsychotic drugs on the development of MetS are monitored through the measurement of weight and serum levels of insulin, glucose and lipids. The third article delves into the issue of providing evidence that can support or discredit the
Monday, April 29, 2019
History - Essay Examplether end focused on the providence while reforms had to do with the states financial systems to provide protection from a repeat of much(prenominal) severe depression. This series of programs changed the role of the federal judicature in American life.Firstly, the newly do basically redefined the relationship between the federal giving medication and the citizens. The government took the responsibility to care for people unlike in the past. Initially, the federal government was detached from the common man and as such their financial security or propensity was not much their concern. After enactment of the new deal, the federal government financed the public religious service jobs which solved the problem of unemployment. The new deal created programs that targeted to keep the citizens secure like the FDIC and social security. The federal government became peoples prosperity and economic security provider when things would go bad coming to their rescue (Taylor, n.d).Secondly, the role of government towards its citizens was redefined. The new deal made the government take the roles of recovery, relief as well as reform. Roosevelts ideologies made the governments role more expansive unlike was the ordinary. Thus, governments took to intervene on issues that alter the public. The federal government became the source for solution of Americans problems. The reforms that targeted the banking sector and stock market brought about recovery. The federal government protected home mortgages and thus made it recover from the depression (Taylor, n.d). These efforts pioneered by Roosevelt in under the new deal programs set a precedence that was to become the role of the federal government in the lives of the American people.Further, Reliefs initially were provided by charity organizations and local governments. This was redefined by Roosevelt under the new deal programs. The new deal brought federal reliefs to millions of Americans during the recession. Thousands of men were able to be
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Three Main Stages in a Listening Lesson and Activities Suitable For each Stage - Essay ExampleIt is evidently clear from the discussion that when the learners have been able to listen accurately, they be in a better position to refine their understanding of the grammatical structure of the content beingness taught and also apply it to develop their own vocabulary. The planning of a listening lesson should be systematicso that the teacher can cultivate the students for listening just before the actual listening lesson begins, and continue to prepare them during the actual listening lesson and even after the lesson. The systematic planning is necessary, owing to the fact that learners can arrest problems in understanding and the subsequent interpretation of the content of the listening lesson. Thus, there are three master(prenominal) demos that a listening lesson should undergo in order to enhance the chances of the students understanding, comprehending and interpreting the conte nt accurately. These typifys are Pre-listening is the original stage in a listening lesson, which occurs before the actual listening of the text by the learners begin. Pre-listening is a vital stage in the listening lesson, due to the fact that it acts as a preparation stage for the learners to get an idea of what they are going to listen. One of the major goals why the Pre-listening stage is important in a listening lesson is that it is the necessary stage for offering the necessary motivation to the learners. Motivation is important because it is the portion that arouses the interest of the students in the text, making the students ready to listen keenly to the content. Therefore, the role of the teacher at the Pre-listening stage should be that of motivating the learners through creating interest and raising their curiosity regarding what the listening text contains.
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Contributions to Organisation Theory - Essay ExampleIn general, the ideas underlying Taylors vision of organization, management, and penury were based on certain conditions supposed to be constant. These were the presence of a capitalist system and a money economy, the Protestant work ethic and desirability of the increased size for obtaining the advantages of the division of labor and distinctiveness of tasks.While classical writers concentrated more on the formal elements of organization, the next generation of organizational theorists was more than concerned with social factors of work and human relations between the workers. One of the representatives of this generation is George Elton Mayo who is cognise for his active participation in the Hawthorne experiments which were carried out at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric company in Chicago in the period of 1924 and 1927. The studies aimed to reveal the effect of lighting on the worker productivity. However, in the appendage of experiments, there were discovered other factors which contributed to higher productivity of workers under research. The result of the experiment was that Elton Mayo disproved the beliefs of Tayor that a worker was motivated only by self-interest. The investigation was based on the classical approach and researchers were provoke in how the intensity of lighting influenced the productivity of women workers. In the process of experiment, it was discovered that the production depends little on the physical conditions. The experiment was continued in another direction.
Friday, April 26, 2019
The Civil War is, beyond doubt, the most critical and pivotal event of the 19th atomic number 6 if not all of American History. Explain - Essay ExampleThey include equality, immigration benefits specially in the North, replacement of slavery with racial favoritism and development of the South after ceasing to be a poof Cotton region (Ennis 19). The latter aspect was due to the abolition of slavery, which many plantation masters utilised in tilling and harvesting their cotton (Ennis 15). American civil war in addition its occurrence geological dating many years ago, its impacts characterizes the present state of Americans lives. The agitation for the abolition of slavery especially by the Abraham capital of Nebraska and the Northerners yielded to the present equality (Ennis 17). This emanated from the then core argument that accelerated the abolition of slavery, which stated, No man had much rights than the other despite the color of an individuals skin. The toleration of aboli tion of slavery/servitude was not easy especially among the Southerners who solely relied on slaves in their cotton plantations besides in doing other disfranchised domestic chores (Ennis 18). Therefore, Southerners having no other alternative, they yielded to the Northerners pressure, which led to the emancipation of the enslaved blacks. Emancipation offered the then oppressed blacks and other marginalized races a chance to agitate for their civil rights and dignity, which led to the present equality (Mccurry 60). ... This is because compared to the Southern region there were acceptance and free interactions of diverse races in the north (Ennis 20). In addition, the end of slavery implied an increased competition for jobs in the south especially from the freed blacks where the non-American whites were not willing to experience. Therefore, they ended up relocating to the North where they inhabited diverse regions to play homogeneous cultures besides intermarrying with other races (Mccurry 60). For example, Milwaukee and Cincinnati cities, mostly inhabited by Germans to the present despite diverse and numerous interactions with other races. Mass migration of diverse races to the North also yielded to the reborn of the present United States, which comprises of diverse races that give one homogenous entity. This has given birth to a new generation almost having similar trends especially in the mode of dressing and music (Hip Hop). The banning of servitude severely affected the southerners economy, which solely relied on farming (Ennis 17). Therefore, they had no option but to invest in other sectors to rebuild their economy, which prompted them to focus on establishing industries besides up the states infrastructures. This is evident from the southern regions current state where the countries have turned their focus to industrializing diverse ventures, for instance, dairy farming (Ennis 20). The trend from then to date has not changed where the southern regio n has kept on improving its infrastructures. This is because of the worldwide perception concerning the essence of intensive industrialization, which leads to a
Thursday, April 25, 2019
hold philosophy about the Butler - Assignment Examplettingly and subtly nudged the course of American history by means of the tumultuous years of reform, contributing an equal importance to the smutty American cause.The main point of the motion-picture show is the Black Africans struggle for equality in America. It is not unlike the classic story of the American vision as told in countless materials such as Forrest Gump. This particular American Dream was told from the Black Americans perspective and the experiences in well-mannered Rights Movement. This inevitably included that tragedy and sorrow of being Black man in modern America particularly before the Civil Rights movement with the segregation of the benighted and the whites and immediately after as America was confronted by racial and relevant issues both at hearthstone and abroad. This key point is palpable across the entire film. As Gainess life progressed, so did the lives of African American. These transpired in a succession of flashbacks in the booster units mind as he was waiting to meet the newly elected Black President. For this reason, the film was heavily structured in order to seamlessly flux the phases of the Gaines life with the chronology of the American Civil Rights movement and the American contemporary political developments. The challenge of achieving this feat without digressing from the protagonists narrative was achieved through stylistic interplay of shots.In some parts of the film, bracketing was also used to extract on the narrative of Cecil Gaines and his familys life as the director integrated civil rights stories such as boycotts. These shots do use of a play of lighting, close-ups (like they were actually before the audience), the use of elements such as mirror and the beat of television display as reflected on the face of the actors, among others. This approach was important especially in narrating the chronology of the Civil Rights movement without veering away from the logical sequence of Cecil Gaines narrative. There was also the
critic all toldy examine the European Court of Justice (ECJ)s concept of success of EC Law with the aid of courting examples - Essay Example7). For example, ingredient States are required to ensure that all of their Treaty commitments are accomplish and must not jeopardise the attainment of the objectives of this Treaty (TFEU, art. 10). The EC Treaty also confers responsibility on the ECJ to ensure that the Treaty is interpreted and applied for the enforcement of Community law (TFEU, art. 220).The ECJ established the concept of supremacy in Van Gend en Loos v Netherlands (1963) by enunciating two main principles of Community law direct onus of Community Law in Member States and supremacy of Community law over the national laws of Member States. The ECJ stated that Community law has establishing a new legal order under which Member States break voluntarily surrendered their sovereignty (Van Gend en Loos v Netherlands, 1963, see also Costa, 1964).The UK does not acknowledge the s urrender of sovereignty, only when instead adheres to a dualist constitutional system. Monalism states automatically incorporate international law into national systems (Schutze, 2012). EC supremacy in the UK is only acknowledged via an Act of parliament and thus firmly establishes and reinforces Parliamentary sovereignty in the UK. For instance, Lord Denning MR, in anticipation of signing the EC Treaty noted that the UK did not specifically contribute notice of treaties. It would only take notice of treaties that are embodied in a statute enacted by Parliament (Blackburn v AG 1971).Thus, the UK acknowledges that treaty law is only applied by an act of Parliament not by the direct application of treaty law (Aust, 2008). For example, the European Community Act 1972 (ECA) provides that the EC Treaty will be unfoldn legal effect in the UK without further enactment and all national laws must be interpreted in such a way as to give effect to Community law (ECA ss. 2(1) and 2(4)). Eve n so, when applying Community law, the UK will not apply
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Implement nice trade strategies - Assignment ExampleThe most crucial issues related to the decision making methodologies involves the concept of integrate food merchandise talks to be the best weapon for the marketing managers to come up with good marketing plans to build strong brands. These strong brands dust the best solution to overcome any form of aspiration from the rivals in the global economy.Marketing communications define the set of diverse communication strategies implemented to market the products and services of a company. The communication strategies play a vital role in making or breaking the value of the product in the market. The directors of the company push the marketing managers to extremes in order to guard the estimated results. These estimated results definitely relate to the position of the company in the global market. Marketing communications comprises of Advertising media, mark of a product, building customer relationships, promotion of a brand, s ales promotion so on (Frost & Sullivan, n.d.). all these factors specified play a major role in the construction of good brands by the marketing managers for the products under production. Now-a-days consumers are always looking for various services provided by the producers. Production of a crabby product has become a dependent factor based on consumer demand (Kate Maddox, 2006). Major absorption of the marketing strategies deals with the methodologies involved over communicating the apt schooling concerning a product to the consumer. These communications form the backbone of the brand image formed for a product based on the idea create in the consumers mind regarding the various features associated with the product. A consumer is always driven by a brand that ensures the prime(a) of the product and also provides easy methods of gaining the appropriate discipline without any hurdles. The consumer prefers to gather all the necessary information within no time this can be the best opportunity for the producers to provide all the information with apt details and also present a demonstration of the product functionality to gain the customers loyalty. This sort of communication helps the company to build a huge set of loyal customers who prioritize the brand options and always withdraw back to the brand that they are confident about.Building a Strong BrandBrand is considered as a promise made to the consumer by the producer over the quality of the products and services that they offer to the customer. This is basically the major factor that defines the quality associated with the products the company manufactures (Tom Blackett, 2004). Brand image has become a matter of prestige and pride to the consumers of this new era. Brands provide the authentication over the quality of the product to the consumer in order to present the purchases confidently out of the wide variety of choices. As they say there is no free repast in this world, the consumers prefer t o invest their hard earned money into products that perform up to their expectations. Consumer satisfaction
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Human Resources literature understand - Essay Exampleand laws, policies and programs that define their responsibilities and code of conduct both within and outside the office as people who represent the values of the discussion section govern these employees. The department has a series of laws and policies that guide the actions of the employees and partners of the department and the code of conduct that they are supposed to observe (Perry, 2006 Plotnick, 2005).The purpose of this research is to conduct an overview of the laws or insurance policy and program at the DFC, investigate how they are implement in the work place ( policy or laws) and find out any challenges to the implementations. It also intends to investigate any change to the work place, how is it affect the employee and the death desire of the outcome of the policyThis research will be conducted through reviewing different research documents and online sources that mystify been written on the human resource polic ies and laws and DFC and find the successes and gaps in the implementation of human resource policies counseling on employee rights and responsibilities at the DFC. The findings from this research will be used in the next section.The research findings from this study will be used to come up with conclusions and make recommendations to the DFC on how to improve their human resources laws and policies to pee-pee a healthy working environment and an efficient
Monday, April 22, 2019
Business Crime - Christies Ltd - Essay Example forwards proceeding to the topic of Christies Ltd. and business crime, it is important to understand how and why the Theft Act 1968 came into existence. This Act was accepted for it was the first British legislation, which the dealings of criminal law accessible to all citizens and not just throttle to attorneys. An article from bbc.co.uk (2001) tells this history Before 1968, theft and other, similar, offences were governed by a mass of conflicting legislation and communal law and was over-complex. Before 1968, if ownership passed by means of deception, the offence was obtaining by false pretences. If possession was passed, the offence was larcency by a trick. Other offences existed, including larcency by a servant, fraudulent conversion and embezzlement. It had reached the point where it was harder to discover which crime the accused may have committed rather than whether or not the accused was guilty. The 1968 Theft Act, as well a s the 1971 Criminal detriment Act, did much to overcome this problem. All previous theft legislation and common law were overruled, resulting in the basis of the first codified definition of law in England and Wales.
Sunday, April 21, 2019
MGMT - Essay ExampleHowever, being a younger executive, having only 3.5 years of sleep together in an industry, it is not necessary that seniors in other positions may hear my words properly. I gift to use my expertise well to derive compliancy from others and to use my power effectively. Nobody can repugn me if I prove my credentials in front of other senior executives.Attraction is another parentage of personal power. Others get out definitely notice my charisma, behaviour and physical characteristics before accepting me as their leader. regular(a) though my experiences are less, I should convince my fellow employees that my experiences were in a senior position and I am capable of handling any situations. Once I succeeded in proving my abilities, it would be easier for me to command the respect of my fellow employees. Situational leadership is implemented in majority of the organizations at present and I should implement it in my organization also. I should create an impres sion that my leadership styles are neither autocratic, nor democratic in nature, scarcely a mixture of the two. In other words, I should respond to the problems based on the situations.Employees will continuously try to imitate their leaders. In other words, if the managers are passive, employees will also try to follow the equal path. On the other hand, if the managers are active, employees will also try to become active as some(prenominal) as possible. In other words, I should try to become an active leader. When the leader shows more wakefulness in organizational matters, employees cannot become idle. They should realise that the leader is watching their every movement. Under such circumstances, they will be forced to concentrate more on their responsibilities.Legitimacy increases acceptance. In other words, I should sweep up more care while taking any decisions in my organization. My fellow employees should feel that my decisions are original and it will guide the organiz ation towards prosperity.I should specifically remind my managers
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Global Climate reposition abstract - Assignment Exampleincludes oil and coal deposits, limestone, and carbon-rich shale while the mount reservoirs include the hydrosphere, melodic phrase, and living biomass. The long-term carbon cycle refers to the commutation of carbon between the Earth, oceans, and the atmosphere. It entails the reaction of carbon dioxide with water and rock silicate or change forming magnesium, calcium bicarbonate, and silica, which then dissolve in the ocean. Heat and pressure release the carbon dioxide corroborate to the atmosphere. On the other hand, the short-term carbon cycle denotes its exchange between the surface reservoirs, which is rapid. Carbon exchange between the atmosphere and ocean involves photosynthesis, solubility, and carbonate pump. Dissolved carbon dioxide decreases water pH (8.2 to 8.05) decreasing carbonate concentration and hence lessening the stability of aragonite and calcite essential for skeleton and shell formation. Therefore, acidification of water by carbon dioxide affects the reproduction of calcifying organisms. Acidification of the water also causes increased levels of nutrients, zinc, copper and toxic metals affecting the ecosystem.Earths zipper balance refers to the balance of solar radiation and the energy that radiates to space that affects the earths temperature. The solar constant, which is 1,367 watts per self-colored meter, measures the amount of solar electromagnetic radiation. Received radiation on Earth depends on seasons and distance of the surface from the sun.Albedo is a measure of the total incident light on the surface reflected back to space. It relies on the nature of the surface. Emission of radiation from the matter occurs in the form of IR radiation. Energy transfer to the atmosphere happens in the form of latent and sensible heat. Climate change is subject to forcing factors including greenhouse gasses, aerosols and changes in solar irradiance and land cover.Greenhouse gasses such as methane, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide
Friday, April 19, 2019
Leda and the Swan on the painting photos - Essay simulationThe essay Leda and the Swan on the painting photos explores he symbols of Leda and the Swan in the context of Painting Photos. Conversely, in a work of art or sculpture, we do not encounter impressionable representations for different senses, still with a real visual illustration. The artist that from the experience of Swan and Leda would depict the gaze of wings that are spread out will not depict at all He would hide from view what we wanted to see with all our heart. The traditional explanation comprises in staging the bodies immediately before their entwining. However, much(prenominal) is not an lovely solution in the example of Leda and the swan we exactly had the aim of witnessing the dealings later the incident. Moreover, to paint an image that would be the basis of troubles. First, there is the nervousness in the midst of the imposing form of genus Zeus and the modest figure of the swan in which in he is disto rted. Predominantly, because the miniature bird has also to stack the enormous feminine body. Prior to the minds eye, we unobtrusively acclimatize the form of the swan, as jibe to previously Ovid cited verses. Nevertheless, when the view is graphically portrayed there in front of our very eyes, the inconsistency sandwiched between the forceful Zeus and the modest form of the swan is captured by the eyes vision. The depiction of loving couples has unendingly been a setback in the plastic arts. In the apparent motive, those of a pair linking the most attractive fronts are concealed from sight.
Gender focus - Essay ExampleThe parliamentary procedure has induced different expectation and opportunities to men. Women be less happy today than they were in 1970s and the mixed bag brought about through the womens movement may hasten decreased womens happiness (Stevenson and Wolfers, 2007). In the term Between the Sexes Ama Quindlen tried to advocate that women should be welcomed into a variety of positions and roles that presumably reserved for men. She held that the severalise created by men is not because of big differences scarce because very small and minor differences. hands ar required to take some specific roles different from those that the women take. In our society today men be left with little choice on how to spend their lives. Men are expected to stick to their careers for the involvement of the family. Society justifies that women on the other hand can drop out of the labor market to be house makers or in other terms housewives. On the same note women ca n steady down to stay at home and rely on the glory of their husbands but men dont have such opportunity, the criticism they will receive from the society will be outrageous. Men have also acquired great opportunities in the work place demoralizing women. Disciplines such as engineering and acquaintance have been male dominated. Women can also do and perform a better on these arenas, but because of the discriminating set the have less opportunities. The divisions surrounded by the sexes start in early ages of the children. In the article between the sexes categorization starts as him and her and so on. There is still a glass ceiling between men and women. Young boys and girls cant dance easily on each others arms without any development of feeling uneasy. Women still struggle as artists as depicted by Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Today in the music and movie industry women who are depicted as nude are regarded as more attractive by the mark eters. But men wont appear nude in music videos or movies. Articles written by men are approximately in any form of literature. It is not that women are less artistic than men but because of the dissimilitude that exist between the sexes. The way men look at women is also discriminating they view women as sex objects. Most pornographic material is viewed by men. Society by these acts of representing suggestive photos of nude women depicts that women are there to sexually satisfy men. The freedom of expression in women is so limited as compared to men. winning a look at the family setup the husband is expected to have the last say whether he is wrong or not. Women who are now engaging in writing, weather in artistic or academic are concentrating so much on the issue of feminism. This can be attributed to the fact that they are trying to express themselves in as other avenues are not justly open for them. untroubled presidential term is honest governance irrespective of the gend er, men have more chance in matters pertaining governance as compared to women. The opportunities of leadership in men are evident from matters of corporate scenario to state leadership. Anybody can licence that most presidents in the state are men. It is to the least expectation of the society that women that women can be good leaders. The prevailing of outdated stereotype about the different opportunities and roles about male and women can be attributed to this phenomenon. Men are expected to organise in terms of hierarchy, to gain status. Women dont need to rise to gain status the glory of their husband is enough. A first lady is the wife to the president of a state but first gentleman is non-existence. This fact makes men to fight for leadership and governance position. though the issue of femi
Thursday, April 18, 2019
How did quest of pigs lead to cuban missle crisis - Research Paper ExampleThe situation that followed the Second World War was the stop of Cold war that lasted up to early 1990s and when the Soviet republic disintegrated.During the period of the Cold War, legion(predicate) political and economic maturements were realized ideologically. Thought there were no direct military combat in the Cold War, the period was characterized by many serious allegation of the two blocs the US and USSR. Propaganda was one of the weapons apply during this period, this made tension to build up within the two countries and at one point during the iciness war, it almost sparked to a direct military confrontation but this never was. This was the Invasion of the Bays of Pig and the resultant Cuban Missile crisis. Scholars and policy makers undoubtedly believe that the occurrence of the two scenarios in the 1961-62 constituted cold-blooded war peak since US and USSR almost faced one another in what cou ld easily criminal to be Third World War (Jones, 2008).Bay of Pigs is situated in the South Cost of Cuba the development that took place in the coastal part of Cuba necessitated the missile crisis. A military revolution took place in Cuba in 1959 in which Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batista and developed very close ties with the then Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev (Henriksen, 2006). During this time US was not in good books with USSR and the Cuban association with USSR alarmed US. The cause of the tension was all rough the attempt of USSR to use Cuba as their proxy to propagate the socialism policy in the whole of Latin America.America was worried following this move and wanted to oust Fidel Castro in a military disguise. During the elevate of Eisenhower, a plan was hatched that accepted to train the Cuban exiles in the US to attack and put down Fidels administration through the support of the Cuban people that America thought were also anti the Fidel administration. The p lan failed and Nikita having realized that his sympathizer was attacked,
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Families that work - assay ExampleThe policy failures ar attributed to a false dichotomy in terms of minimal earthly concern commitment and participation in care giving. Notably, US working families policies are based on privately based and market driven labour market demands, instead of citizen-based social policy frameworks. This has then do US to have the graduate(prenominal)est wage-gap between working males and females, in addition to having the highest family poverty levels compared to European nations and other communicative countries families. Overall, Gornick &Meyers argues that US has a rather pathetic parental and motherlike employment structures coupled with a comparatively restricted cash allotment to families (2005). Consequently, this has made American working parents especially mothers to face competing responsibilities, which not lonesome(prenominal) leaves them reprimanded in their workplaces but also overburdened and drained at home. Gornick & Meyers also take issue of how child care in US is mostly privately driven and left entirely to women, which is something that makes US to have a smaller portion of working mothers operating part-time and with high working hours (2005). Although the US has elevated paternal employment levels compared to Scandinavian nations, Canada and some continental European nations, there is minimal policy to shore up mothers in their labor-market commitment. Gornick &Meyers observes that even existing legal frameworks such as Pregnancy Discrimination Act or the Temporary Disability Insurance Act does not enforce provisions such as maternal or parental paid-leave (2005). at that place is low level and even lack of policy frameworks, which can change mothers to take a couple of days off from their work after birth without sacrificing their job guarantor or paycheques. Consequently, working mothers are faced with job interruptions, forgone earnings, and reduced career opportunities. Moreover, families expe rience extremely high out of pocket child-care expenditures, parents spending extensive hours at work, in addition to experiencing stressful adjustments to job schedules. still though the US has progressive policies on work gender equality such as fathers existence given leave rights, Gornick &Meyers observe that the nation has no provision that allows fathers to spend a considerable get along of time with the mother and child during the first year of the child birth without having to sacrifice their wages (2005). There are no provisions, which will ensure that both new working mother and father are allowed to work part-time without shifting employers or even losing their health benefits until the child goes to elementary school. Gornick &Meyers also confront the fact that the US lacks provisions that will ensure that childcare expenses are offered to working parents at a much lower cost (2005). They observe that working familys earnings do not proportion the requirement of car e, especially in meeting the needs of modern families. This is attributed to the failure of the traditional American employment-forcing outcomes identify by the lack of options for employees in deciding labor-market wages, granting of health insurance only via employment, and a labor structure,
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Group Incentives Paper EssayWorking on police squads has been a part of many of the organizations I shoot been a part of however the majority of the prison term it isnt easy to apply police squad up concepts to each scenario. Throughout my life I have vie sports, been a part of search and rescue organizations, the military, learning groups and other(a) volunteer organizations such as the sheriffs department. In the Army we drub in teams within each department for an individual unit any providing support for the unit and units under our unit. It is the ability for the team to work with a cohesiveness and pull unitedly each others personal strengths to accomplish the teams over entirely objectives.As a team, design dickens incentives created specifically for your teams dynamics. In the unit I work in I am a part of an Operations section which is the heart and soul of the unit. Within the section each soldier is responsible for an individual orbit of tasking that contr ibutes to the overall success of the unit. There is an Officer, a Non-Commissioned Officer (enlisted similar to a team manager), his assistant who serves more of an immediate supervisor and then each team member. Although we are all work in contrasting positions performing not only different tasks but different jobs exclusively yet we all have to learn and understand each others primary positions so that if one team member is un subject to work then what other team member is visible(prenominal) is capable of stepping in to cover that position and meet those objectives.As an immediate supervisor I am responsible for ensuring that all goals or objectives are being met by the required eralines in order for the team to succeed. I bring to the team association, experience, confidence, and leadership which are my strengths. Using the list of group roles identified by Kenneth Benne and Paul Sheats(Wynn, 2012) I fall in the category of coordinator because of the team dynamics the memb ers arent inevitably junior in position or rank which means they are self motivators as head as have their own unique skill sets and experience levels that they bring to the team. Therefore I have found that the leadership dash that I bring as a coordinator pulling together knowledge, ideas and resources from the other members of the team and utilizing them is far more effective.My ability to coordinate versus using a typical prudence style of strictly delegating tasks and checking the status for completion benefits the team since it overturns confrontation and dissention between the members as myself. Recognizing and showing that the knowledge and skills that each person contributes is valued by utilizing individual strengths creates a balance and synergy in the team allowing the team to easily see how their contributions affect the teams success. Since we were deployed overseas for combat operations end-to-end the training period and the course of the year more junior soldie rs as strong as peers were able to learn from my previous combat experience and the knowledge I have gained as well as encouraging others to share their unique skills as knowledge has fostered an environment that encourages sharing versus focusing more narrowly on one person alone.Negative Effects of Individual StrengthsThere have been cadences that it isnt always beneficial to simply coordinate a tasking or try to go with the flow to avoid conflict. A high performance team that has a cumulative amount of skills and knowledge from a different background must at times be directed and have tasks delegated when there is conflict or a lack of cooperation between members of the team. The drawback of a team being together for long periods of time is that as it moves through all of the stages eventually it has to break up and members of the team move to other teams and projects. Within this scenario a team not only works together, eats together, lives together and exercises together wit h very little time to break away from the team and therefore with have a higher level of stress deepen by separation from many other norms as well as the overall austere operative conditions. During situations such as this it is not always beneficial to stay with one leadership or management style instead you have to learn to adapt to the groups culture at the time and change as it changes.Room for ImprovementOne skill that I lack in is in a different scenario functional with a learning team I have found that since the time frame for the team to move through each phase is so short and suspense times are as so I tend to fail to become engaged earlier enough on in the process. The teams are formed at the end of the first week but not engaging until well into the end of the second week but only for a short time as the indispensability for the team to perform isnt until well into the third week I am still working mainly as an individual and failing to engage the team as early as po ssible. some other skill I need to work on is communication in respect to paradox-solving In this area with such as short time for a team to form, storm, norm and accomplish its objectives it is important for the team to communicate effectively any bothers they are having either individually or as a team as quickly as possible to allow them to pull together resources utilizing the teams strengths to solve the fuss.Although I work on teams in the military often times I have been taught and needed to be capable of operating independently using personal knowledge and experience to work through a problem in isolated environments. Because of that I find that I will find myself doing so trying to debate to work through a problem on my own instead of engaging my team, taking the time to learn and get to understand each member to allow them to come together utilizing their strengths. This process is often more effective and will tend to find solutions to a problem much more quickly. job solving techniquesOne technique I use to work through problems is a speaker- listener technique causes me to work to not simply hear but to listen to the problem to understand what the true problem is isolating it from non essential information that can cause someone to become derailed from the core issue man attempting to solve other problems that are simply effects not the cause. Another problem solving technique that I could use would be establishing a structured forum working to communicate a problem with a group or team communicating effectively and in a timely musical mode not letting time elapse before utilizing this method. Ultimately this would pull more resources allowing for more originative ideas that are more than one dimensional and would work to foster a more cohesive team learning environment.ReferencesMcClelland, D. (1961). Methods of Measuring Human Motivation. Princeton, N.J. Van Nostrand.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Nonwestern Literature EssayModern literary productions does not show the limit to which publications has come. Medieval forms of publications reflected an unprecedented level of purity and originality. A study of the similarities and dissimilarities amongst cultures reveals the stand in of ideology that occurred galore(postnominal) centuries ago. This gives weight to the assertion that young forms of literary productions from contrary regions of the world once divided certain characteristics. It should not get assumed that the different forms of literary productions arose from the same inspiration. Rather, the varying types of books occurred separately. However, ascribable to improvements in technology and communication, forms of books ache create similar over time. An in-depth look at Egyptian, Indian, and Chinese publicationss highlights this clearly. chinaware and India, as countries from the East, have a winding, rich, and spectacular literary tradition. T he ex tilt of literary accomplishments between the twain nations has never ceased even until modern times. The primary groundwork for such an exchange became launch through the substructure of Buddhism into china. As a result of this introduction, Indian publications began imparting nourishment to its Chinese counterpart.Thus, Chinese literature adopted plenty of moulds from Indian literature. Resulting effects on Chinese literature have manifested themselves in aspects of artistic tendency, form, subject, rhetoric and vocabulary. In ancient times, Buddhism served as the key medium for Chinese-Indian literary exchanges. Chinese literature has become more and more influenced by Indian literature in recent times delinquent to the preoccupancy of Buddhist influences. Nevertheless, the extent and spirit of the literary exchange between India and China has become two-sided and antonymous in recent times.There exist similarities and differences between Chinese and Indian liter ature. In some(prenominal) Chinese and Indian literature, the form of literature gets classified as primarily oral. In some(prenominal) Chinese and Indian literatures, extensive indite forms of literature appeared in later periods compared to the branch of oral forms of literature. In both Chinese and Indian literature, the emergence of indite forms of literature arose due to the spread of literacy programs pioneered by the ruling authorities in both countries.Also, both Indian and Chinese literatures have different forms of literature contributing to the overall evoke of literature in the respective countries. Moreover, both Indian and Chinese literatures have experienced changes due to modern influences from the western world. On the different hand, a a few(prenominal) differences arise between Chinese and Indian literature. Chinese literature has always gotten expression through only if one language. This has remained true for the over 3000 years which the Chinese civili zation has existed. On the contrary, Indian literature has experienced segmentation due to the presence of numerous languages at bottom India.The Indian culture has officially recognized 22 languages and among these languages, 21 of them have establishes their own unique forms of literature. Indian literature has gotten influence from the various traditions that have governed over the artless. Throughout its history, various family traditions have dictated the nature of ownership over the country. In turn, the varying styles of ownership have had an unmistakable effect on the types of literature. Thus, different ownership periods as demarcated by family traditions have different kinds of literature.Conversely, various dynasties throughout the whole period of its self-governing existence have command China. This has led to the classification of types of literature based on the particular dynasty that ruled the country at the time of the emergence of the literature. These dynastie s include Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing. During the existence of all these dynasties, various forms of literature have arisen. For instance, early woodblock and poetry became embraced during the Tang dynasty while novels gained prominence during the Ming dynasty.Chinese and Egyptian literatures share many points of reference. both(prenominal) forms of literature began experiencing formative influences ahead the Common Era. Egyptian literature has its roots in ancient Egyptian culture. Along with Sumerian literature, ancient Egyptian literature gets classified as the one of the early forms of literature. In both forms of literature, the ownership periods play a key role towards the definition and classification of different types of literature. both(prenominal) Chinese and Egyptian forms of literature have pioneered forms of compose, which had not existed earlier.Egyptian literature gave rise to hieroglyphics. Also, the writing of blurbs began in the 14th cent ury Egyptian times. The writing of blurbs thus emerged as a key component of literary writing in the contemporary world. Both forms of literature have allowed the influence of different forms of literature from early(a) countries. Egyptian literature became molded by the influx of foreign poets who flocked the town of Alexandria. These poets originated from Greece and Rome. They immigrated to Alexandria so as to employ the library facility in the town.As a result of their extended stay in Egypt, the poets began expressing their literature in Arabic language. Inevitably, the existing literature deep down Egypt became fused with the literature brought by the European poets. The percolation and influence of Indian Buddhism has played a prominent role in the shaping the Chinese literature toward adopting Indian connotations. Meditation has become a key component of Chinese literature un deal earlier times. This lays testament to the fact that Indian Buddhism has left an indelible ma rk on Chinese literature.In Chinese literature, the initial form of literature consisted primarily of oral forms. Written forms of literature appeared during later periods of civilization. This stands in wicked contrast to Egyptian literature, which has the autobiography as its oldest form. Egyptian literature got expressed in papyrus reeds. These provided the writing material on which ancient Egyptian writers would record their literary full treatment. Also, Egypt invented calligraphy, which emerged as a key gist of writing during that era. Chinese literature has received influence primarily stemming from the ruling influences within the country.The dynasties that have exercised governorship over the country have molded the types of literature within China. In contrast, Egyptian literature has experienced influences stemming from international sources. The conquering of Egypt by Muslim Arabs had a major impact on the literature in Egypt. Libraries became established and literat ure thrived. Papyrus reeds became replaced by cloth paper as writing surfaces. An different difference between Egyptian and Chinese literature appears when it comes to the overriding motive behind the change in literature.In Chinese literature, the changes undertaken in literature have occurred involuntarily and with the noble aim of improving the Chinese culture. On the other hand, changes in Egyptian literature have become implemented for the sole function of embracing Islam. The legal age of Egyptian literature back in medieval times consisted of wisdom literature. This shows that the wider outlet of Egyptian literary works got written mainly for instruction and guidance. Such instruction recognizes the social format of life that exists in Egypt. Family values take the first place in Egypt.As a result, the forms of literature within the country give precedence to the values honored by families. However, the mass of forms of literature written in China became formulated for th e purpose of entertainment. This arises due to the communal nature of the Chinese culture. Hence, the forms of literature become designed in such a way as to amuse and on that pointby engender a sense of togetherness within the community. ?Egyptian and Indian literatures have stunning similarities and glaring differences. The bulk of both Egyptian and Indian literatures bears literature intended for instruction.Both Egyptian and Indian cultures recognize the supremacy of family values. Thus, the literature of both countries became formulated with the object of providing the families with instructive information regarding family life. Indian folklore and Egyptian folklore combined as key elements towards the formation of storytelling formats. Both Indian and Egyptian literatures have become molded for the purpose of accommodating religious beliefs. Literature in Egypt has evolved with the personation of time as it becomes more permissible to the Islamic faith and body of beliefs.S ince Islam has gained wide acclaim as the adduce godliness, the form of literature within Egypt has sought to reflect this truth in its form. This has endeavored to avoid hurting the religiously-trained consciences of Egyptians. In India, religion has had a major impact towards the changes that have occurred in Indian literature. India plays host to majority of the worlds most populous forms of faith. Buddhism alone has had an understated effect on the form of Indian literature. The prevalence of meditation techniques within Egyptian literature gives evidence of the extent of Buddhist influence.?However, a few differences exist between Indian and Egyptian literatures. Egyptian literature had its beginnings much earlier than Indian literature. This unavoidably makes Egyptian literature richer than Indian literature. The superior quality of Egyptian literature becomes apparent through a sober consideration of the genres that have gotten invented due to Egyptian literature. Indian literature has become classified in terms of tradition due to the ideologies that have governed the country. In the contrary, Egyptian literature has always manifested their Islamic inclinations.Also, Egyptian literature received notable influence from European poets while India has risen to become the source of poetic influence to other countries like China. The history of Egyptian literature had its beginnings in ancient Egypt. The River Nile had a spacious influence on the development of Egyptian literature. The town of Alexandria served as a major confluence for the emergence of literary influences. This happened because of the presence of the Library of Alexandria. This library served as hubs for poets originating from Greece and Rome, which served as key world powers in that time.The influence of these foreign poets had an unprecedented effect on Egyptian literature. Beginning from the period of the tyrannical Pharaohs until the conclusion of the romish Empires rulership, an cient Egyptian literature got expresses in Egyptian language. Ancient Egyptian literature gains recognition as the worlds earliest form of literature along with other genres like Sumerian literature.? However, forms of writing in ancient Egypt did not surface until the late periods of the 4th century. This included both hieratic and hieroglyphic forms of writing.At some time before the modern era, the useable literary works included epistles and letters, texts, hymns and poems, and memorials. These biographical texts got penned so as to document the professional lives of noteworthy administrative marshals. These developments notwithstanding, narrative forms of Egyptian literature became created in late periods of the 17th century BC. The formation of narrative forms sparked a media revolution in the whole of Egypt. Such a revolution occurred due to various factors. The unprecedented rise in literacy levels played a primary role for the revolution.Other factors included widespread ac cess to written literature, rise of an dexterous class of scribes, bleak cultural sensibilities about individuality, unprecedented levels of literacy, and mainstream access to written materials.? The history and tradition of Indian literature primarily features verse though it also seems fundamentally oral. The earliest works became composed for the purpose of getting sung or recited. In this raw form, they became transmitted throughout a number of generations before getting written down as permanent recordings.As a result of this belated recording, the earliest records of a text appear later by several millenniums than the stated date of its initial composition. Furthermore, in all likelihood because the majority of Indian literature appears as either religious or as a reworking of harsh stories from the Sanskrit tales, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, and the mythological writings, the authors often maintain their anonymity. Biographical components and details of the lives of the majority of the earlier Indian authors appear only in muchlater myths and legends. In medieval Indian literature, the earliest works in many of the languages were sectarian, designed to advance or to celebrate some unorthodox regional. Much traditional Indian literature is derived in theme and form not only from Sanskrit literature but from the Buddhist and Jain texts written in the Pali language and the other Prakrits (medieval dialects of Sanskrit). This applies to literature in the Dravidian languages of the south as well as to literature in the Indo-Iranian languages of the north.Invasions of Persians and Turks, beginning in the 14th century, resulted in the influence of Persian and Islamic culture in Urdu, although important Islamic strands fire be found in other literatures as well, especially those written in Bengali, Gujarati, and Kashmiri. After 1817, entirely new literary values were essay, and literary drama (this last incorporating both classical Sanskrit and Weste rn models)that bit by bit engulfed the customary Indian verse genres. Urdu poets remained faithful to the old forms while Bengalis were imitating such English poets as Percy Bysshe Shelley or T. S. Eliot.? The history of ?Chinese literature extends for thousands of years. This started from the earliest recorded dynastic accost archives to the mature fictional novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty. These mature fictional novels became penned for the sake of entertaining the masses of literate Chinese citizens. To various Westerners, Chinese literature remains hugely unexplored in comparison to the rich state of the Chinese culture. As a matter of fact, it is a treasure of a very considerable number of brilliant and profound works as each dynasty, in the long history of China, has passed down its bequest of magnificent events and works.For 3500 years, they have woven a variety of genres and forms encompassing poetry, essays, fiction and drama each in its own way reflecting the s ocial climate of its day through the high spirit of art. Chinese literature has its own values and tastes, its own reigning cultural tradition and its own critical system of theory. Chronologically, it can be divided into four main periods classical, modern, contemporary, and the present-age literature. Classical literature refers to the earliest period and covers works from trey thousand years ago to the late Qing Dynasty and is a virtually unbroken strand enduring dynastic changes.Since it was nearly always developed under the reign of centralized and unified government, it is imbued with the thoughts of a culture that embraced slaveholding and a feudal society. It was steeped in an enclosed environment that hardly had any real links with religion or least of all the literature of foreign cultures. ? Modern Literature refers to the period from the Opium War in 1840 to the May Fourth Movement in 1919. As the decadent reign of the Qing failed to inspire the minds of people, the lit erary forms had remained idempotent till the Opium War in 1840.Then they absorbed the impact of western thoughts as foreigners poured in China and established their colonies. Novels, poetry and other works began to appear with a theme of patriotism and a revealing of social ills. Contemporary literature spanned the period from 1919 to the foundation of modern in 1949 and took on a new vigor, despite the fact that Chinese was in the throes of checkered and complicated times. This period was distinctive as it brought into universe a new and revised literary language, form, content and skills allowing it to evolve into an independent and open art available to the whole of society.It attached big(p) attention to peoples lives and a future with strong political tendencies. Influenced by the scend of the world literature, it provided wide and amiable communication between writers and readers. Present-Age literature has evolved since the establishment of the Peoples Republic in 1949. During this time, there was a logjam as a consequence of the Cultural Revolution that lasted for nearly 10 years. That era is straightway long past and we now have a favorable turn on events and a great number of responsible writers deepen the literary forms and content. Nowadays literature prospers.As the Chinese nation is a racial mix of Han people together with 55 other pagan groups, literature reflects this. The various ethnic groups have contributed greatly in this field.? China stands as the only country worldwide with a mono-language literature for over 3,000 years. This continuity comes from the nature of the written language itself. It is the use of characters, not letters as in Western languages, that is, most important in the Chinese language. The characters stand for things or ideas and so, unlike groups of letters, they cannot and need never get sounded.Thus Chinese could be read by people in all separate of the country in spite of gradual changes in pronunciation, th e emergence of regional and local dialects, and modification of the characters. A revolution held in China marked the dynasties whereby a clan ruled over an empire. Inevitably, the significant change of Chinese society that occurred with the change of government invariably led to an alteration of literature. Thus, Chinese literature gradually became westernized and Classical language got absolved from utilization.The national government desired for women to enjoy equal privileges like men. This exclaim for an equal status in society resulted in plenty of women writers and scholars. As a result, the amount of politically oriented literature doubled. Academicians got unrestrained access to literature from foreign countries while plenty of students received scholarships so as to study abroad. The New Culture Movement became disbanded and writers endeavored to blaze the trail in transforming China into a modern industrialized nation.Writers also intended to replace Confucian life-style with a modern, westernized one. Under the lead of the national government, there existed some freedom of expression. During that period of relative freedom, lots of different views and styles of literature became astray popular. But at the moment China came under attack from Japan, the resulting Communist victory led to the curtailing of agent freedoms. For instance, only literature that met the approval of the government became allowed. Egyptian literature has also experienced plenty of changes due to interaction with western cultures.The expansion of the international market has necessitated the presence of many foreigners within Egyptian soil. As a result of such mingling, Egyptian literature has become influenced by western attitudes and notions. India has become a key player in the Commonwealth of Nations movement. Inevitably, it has become the focal point for conducting business within Asia. Thus, Indian literature has adopted other cultures. Buddhism has also become part and parcel of the literature of many other countries.This highlights the exchange that has undoubtedly occurred between Indian literature and other forms of literature. REFEREENCES Allen, James P. (2000), Middle Egyptian An ledger entry to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, Cambridge Cambridge University Press.? Foster, John Lawrence (2001), Ancient Egyptian Literature An Anthology, Austin University of Texas Press.? K, Kripalani (1970). Modern Indian Literature.? Knight, Sabina (2012). Chinese Literature A Very Short Introduction. Oxford New York Oxford University Press, Very Short Introductions Series.? Levy, Andre (2000).Chinese Literature, Ancient and Classical. Bloomington inch University Press.? Lichtheim, Miriam (2006), Ancient Egyptian Literature Volume II The New Kingdom, with a new foreword by Hans-W. Fischer-Elfert, Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press.? M. , Winternitz. (1973) . A History of Indian Literature.? Mair, Victor H. (2001). The capi tal of South Carolina History of Chinese Literature. New York Columbia University Press.? T. , W. , Clark. (1970). The Novel in India.? Quirke, S. (2004), Egyptian Literature 1800 BC, questions and readings, London Golden House Publications.
Sunday, April 14, 2019
Importance of Knowing Grammar to Students Essayindeed. Grammar is the backbone of a language and without it each bingle thing you know may be flux, in a sort of jelly without more(prenominal) consistency. In a nutshell, grammar provides you with the structure you need in order to organize and put your messages and ideas across. It is the railway through with(predicate) which your messages testament be transported. Without it, in the same way as a train can non move without railways, you wont be able to convey your ideas to their full extension without a goodish command of the fundamental grammar patterns and structures of the language. I understand that some(prenominal) students ask this question simply because in their own experience they scram always been vexed with two main scenarios, and nothing in between. They want to know where they atomic number 18 going to be standing as regards to their learning.Which are those two scenarios? Well, in one extreme we bring in those language courses that tutor grammar almost exclusively, as if preparing the students to be grammarians of the second language rather than users. In the other extreme we pay those communicative courses in which the only thing that is do is to talk about something or to read an clause and comment on it. In many cases, what is seen in one associate has no resemblance to what is done in the next.In my experience, both scenarios may seem good for rattling specialized purposes but I person in ally feel both are in steal for most language learners. For starters, by itself, a good command of the grammar of a language does not imply that the person is able to reveal effectively, as we unremarkably see with students who have only been exposed to an all-grammar-oriented approach sometimes for many years. Many could recite the grammar by heart but if asked to express basic information, they would hesitate too much and browse through all the grammar rules in their heads before m aking an utterance, or simply dry up.Secondly, just talking in class without anything else done in order to learn from the actual conversation is not good enough either. It may be helpful of course, but up to a certain point. This approach may be more useful for very advanced students who just need to brush up their second language, but for those in need of building up the foundations of a in the altogether language, it is certainly too vague and flux, without any consistency.So then, when asked is grammar veryly important for a second language learner? I always say yes, but, the real question, or issue here is not whether grammar is important or not but rather how we should present grammar to our students. You may be surprised to hear that most of my own students, even advanced ones, have very little awareness of grammar jargon and terminology, in spite of the fact that they can make a sensibly good use of the second language. How is that possible? you may ask. First and foremos t, teachers need to know precisely what they are trying to prepare their students for. I do know that what I want is to create users of a sweet language.I want to prepare people to actually engage in communicative situations using get language and patterns. I am definitely not interested in their explaining to me or making a mental list of all the grammar uses that a certain pattern has.For example, think of your own indigenous language. come to all the tenses that you can find in your own native tongue with their corresponding uses and structures. Unless you are a teacher, a translator or someone who needs to have a very good delve of this meta-language, more likely than not you may feel at a loss to answer that question. And that does not mean in any sense that you are not a terrific user of that language. afterward all, you can understand and express whatever you want with ease.What is more, by being able to do so, you designate an awesome command of the internal grammar o f the language. If you k red-hot no grammar patterns you would not be able to make a single sentence but you can. This means that although you may lack the conscious ability to describe how your language plant (i.e. its grammar) you can use it perfectly. You are a user of the language. You make a perfect use of the grammar of your native language intuitively or unconsciously.Again, our primary goal as second language teachers must be to create users or the language, not linguists It escapes the aim of this article to describe how we can achieve this but essentially we are going to name the main elements to consider to create language users.To begin with, it should be renowned that whatever we present our students with should copy a progression from the very general meaning to the very specific pattern or structure we want them to learn (or that they need to learn of course). I would like to suck up that all this takes place within the same class.Before we start to use the mater ial we have selected, it would be good to introduce the students to the topic you are going to work on. You can have them guess or infer what the material will say about it, they can make predictions and when they fail to use appropriate language, you may provide it. This is good to elicit vocabulary that may be necessary for them to know in order to understand the topic. After you have created curiosity in the topic and provided students with key terms on the topic, make sure you follow a progression such as the one that follows1) digest them with picture show to real language and real situations IN CONTEXT.2) Initial focus on fondness, not form.3) Focus on more specific meaning.4) We can then focus on very specific meaning.5) Analysis and rationalization after we make sure the students have a good understanding of the whole material, you can have them focus on particular relics or patterns that may be important for them to learn at their gift (i.e. grammar) You can systematiz e it more formally and teach them how it works. After all, they have already seen it in coif and they have also worked around meaning, now it is time for them to learn how to use it.6) Give them exercises for them to practice the new structure. Do not be afraid of using grammar drills and patterns. They could be VERY useful for them to fix the new structures in their brains.7) Give them homework to force them to revise this at a later time. The homework does not necessarily need to be communicative in nature. Profit from the time in class to communicate and interact. If possible, avoid drilling activities while you are with them in class. However, the time they are on their own could be very well used to do all the drilling and rote practice that may turn out useful for them to gain a good command of the grammar form you are trying to teach them. personally I feel that the time in class must be used for providing learners with as many communicative situations as possible, rather than making them focus on drills and patterns that they could easily practise on their own.8) Provide them with ample opportunities to practice what they have learned in REAL or REALISTIC communicative situations. reach situations so that they can make lots of mistakes and encourage them to improve on them by reminding them of what they have studied.9) reuse and mention the topic again as many times as necessary, time and again.This is essential for them to in the end acquire the new structures in a natural way.As you can see, I am not condemning grammar at all as some readers may feel when in my articles I plain about teachers working almost exclusively with a grammar-oriented approach. On the contrary, I feel it is essential in order to master a language. However, how grammar is presented to the students is what really matters. I utterly disagree with those teachers who come to class and severalise the class Open your books. Today we will learn the Simple Present Tense.In the suggested steps to follow in any class, you will have noticed that I have used a quite an eclectic approach, starting from a communicative situation (steps 1-4) with the focus on understanding the message from the gist up to very detailed info and later, and only later, once meaning is clearly understood, we reach the grammar item we may need our students to learn at their stage. The obvious advantage of this approach is that while dealing with grammar, the students will have a clear idea of the context in which it was used and the communicative need it satisfied.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
T each(prenominal)ing subordinate diplom EssayIntroductionIn this essay I will be analysing what influence the corner has had on consumer demeanour and the cause behind those transports in performance. A recession is defined as two clean quarters of depressing economic growth, as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. Consumer doings can be defined as The study of when, why, how, and where the great unwashed do or do not buy products. The recent recession began in December 2007 and produce from the USAs advance marketplaceplace, mortgages were universe proposed to people who simply could not afford to include one. As a result the prop market collapsed and the economic down turn rapidly spread to the rest of the worlds financial system, thusly there is now a worldwide recession. With the banking world in turmoil there have been personal effects for other industries. For example, the car industry is one of the most terrible hit industries because ba nks are now macrocosm particularly alert about lending capital. This means that whilst a customer may wish a new car they are unable to fulfil those needs because there is no way of them generating the resources which would conquer them to make the purchase. This can be demonstrated by the fact Toyota has suffered a vent of $4.4 billion4. It is Toyotas first loss in 59 years which added highlights how bad the recent recession is. Further much, the fall down of the property market has not just channeld the deportment of consumers in this industry although, it has also had knock on affects. For example, because less people are existence contri exactlyed mortgages, receivable to the fact a 20-30% deposit is needed, there is usually less remove for new houses to be built because they basically would not be bought in the current climate. The sale of less houses then affects furnishing stores as there are hardly any consumers who need new furniture. Therefore, it is important to construct that consumer behaviour is related between industries.Impact of recession on consumerConsumer behaviour will also change during a recession depending ondemographics which include age, gender and occupation. Research conducted by Price Water hearthstone Coopers put forwards the most influenced age group is the 60-65+ year olds who are retired or come up to retirement, followed by 18-24 year olds, then 45-60 year olds and ultimately 25-44 year olds be likely to be the least affect by the downturn. The worst affected are the 60-65+ year olds because the UK presidency implements an economic policy. This means the government regulates the money supply and interest rates to direct the economy. As OAPs rely on their savings to supplementation their pension it means in the current incidents they are earning significantly less money than they were in former years because interest rates are currently at 0.5% contrasted with 4.5% in 2005. This clearly has huge affects on their buying behaviour because they are forced to create cuts which they may not want to make but have to go through requirement due to major reduced disposable profits. With idleness sailplaning during a recession this affects consumer behaviour as individuals become more alert about their spending due to the fear of unemployment or unemployment.During the current recession it is the 18-24 year olds who are bearing the most with unemployment. However, with unemployment rates soon at 7.8% the increase in cautiousness, and the alarm of unemployment is not isolated to purely this age group as individuals who have seen friends, family or colleagues lose their jobs share the same sentiments and fears that they could be next. This has a huge impact on consumer confidence and therefore consumers will look to reign in their spending. Consumers adjust their frame of mind to being more adjusted towards saving money preferably than spending money because of the uncertainty which surrounds their future. This involves the consumers behaviour towards products. Luxury products such as top of the range food, cars, clothes and perfumes etc are similarly to see sales drop spectacularly as consumers look for methods of decreasing their spending whilst maximising how far their budget goes. For example, an second-rate family may choose to the drop brand level of food for their weekly shop. So rather than buying the Tescos finest variety they would buy the Tesco Value range. Research proposes that on average you can save 33% for each product for a one level drop.For a family hit by the recession this would be a major saving and this emphasizes how when times are hard value is the most vital factor for the consumer and their behaviour will return this. During a recession many consumers areforced to down grade their preferences in order to make living monetary viable. By staring at the performance of Dominos pizza pie it is evident to spot that consumers are changing their activitie s. Dominos pizza recorded a 20% betterment in returns for the first half of 2009. This is an outcome of cash strapped families opting to stay in and order takeaways as a form of a treat rather than eating out at restaurants and pubs. This means the restaurants and pubs are experiencing the brunt of the change in the recession as equal to 75% of British familys say they will eliminate equally eating and drinking out of the house. This does not however mean that family units are cutting alcoholic beverage out of their life. Instead British households are choosing to drink at home with the average spend per household thought to be 35 per week. So the consumers behaviour is changing in the form of where they purchase their products rather than what they are purchasing in this case.ConclusionOn the whole, it is enormously vital to recognise that consumer behaviour is affected by the recession. However it must be noted that the changes in consumer behaviour are very overmuch charge on the industry and products concerned. This is underlined by the aforementioned points, so for example the car industry, construction and property market were the most unhelpfully affected even as industries which allow diversion take in from the recession i.e. the entertainment sector and the cinema.Finally, consumer behaviour will evermore face affected. It will be affected depending what demo of the life cycle the country is at, therefore the only way to reduce the adverse affects and take benefit of the positive affects is for businesses to be flexible. These way businesses have the best opportunity of helping consumers to get equilibrium in the homeostasis see-saw which is more and more difficult to achieve in a recession as consumers face more limitations.ReferencingUKessays.co.uk online. (2003 2014). Available from . Accessed 30 march 2014. Wikipedia online. (28 March 2014). Available from . Accessed 30 march 2014.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
Prove or conversely negate the inverse self-colored law EssayMy aim of this experiment is to prove or conversely refute the inverse square law, which simply states that the intensity of any excite source, which spreads its influence equ each(prenominal)y in all directions without a limit to its range, testament decrease in intensity inversely proportional to the square of the outdo. reason in pathation Research As first proposed by Isaac Newton when proposing his universal law of gravitation it became well-defined to him that the intensity of gravity would decrease according to the inverse of the square of the distance.This is the heart of the inverse square, which states for any point source, which spreads its influence equally in all directions without a limit to its range, will obey the inverse square law. Quite simply the inverse square law states that for sources emitted from a point the intensity will be deduced as the inverse of the square of the distance. You dou ble the distance you reduce the intensity by a operator of 1/4. This has applications in electric handle, light, sound, gamma radiation, and gravity. All of these are expressed in the medium of a field. To explain the properties involved in a field it is useful to use the idea of flux.When water flows form a source to a sink it is transferred at a certain rate, or flux. The flux dumbness will be the mass of water per second crossing a unit area plumb line to the flow. We can think of energy tightfistedness in a similar way. Energy flux density is normally referred to as intensity. Field effectuality and energy flux density are related. The strength of a field will fall off proportionally. The idea of flux can be applied to fields in which there is no obvious evidence for anything actually being transferred, such as passive electrical fields, gravitational fields and magnetic fields.The mathematics that model flux are the same any(prenominal) the field. Generally this can be s ummed up in a formula which states the intensity at a point on a sphere of influence will be deduced by the source strength divided by 4 times pi times the radius squared, where this is the surface area over which the initial source has spread its influence. I = S / 4? r2 This formula manifests itself in a categorization of ways when put into context. When applied to gravity the formula to show the acceleration overdue to gravity at the surface of a body is, 4? GM = Intensity at the surface of sphere of influence.Where G is the gravitational constant, M the mass of the object, and r the distance from the centre point. By cancelling out the 4? fraction we are left with the more elegant formula, GM = acceleration due to gravity r2 Where acceleration due to gravity would be equivalent to the intensity of the source. As the distance is doubled, the intensity is reduced by a factor of 4. So theoretically gravity obeys the inverse square law. When applied to sound we get the formula, P = I 4? r2 Where P is the source power, I the intensity at surface of sphere, and r the distance from the source power.So again we see that as we double the distance we reduce the intensity by a factor of 4. The differce here that as sound is not of ethereal nature it is affected by its surroundings and only works without reflections, or reverberations. The behaviour of point charges in an electrostatic field will obey coulombs law, which in turn obeys the inverse square law. The formula here is, Q = E 4 0 r2 Where Q/? 0 is the source strength, E is the strength of the electrostatic field, and r is the distance. So again we see that as the distance is doubled, the intensity of the field is reduced by a factor of four.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Moral Philosophy strive hargon uses the in majesticct version of utilitarianism. coney believes that persons can deliberate at the intuitive level. In dire situations where there is no time to evaluate decisions on a detailed level, intuition maybe utilise to commit most acts. Direct utilitarianism follows a rigid rules prelude to utilitarianism. Hares burn down implies that authentic acts d whizz intuitively leave become moral because the decision was made on a wild sweet pea level instinct instead of simply following a driven of rules. Hare attempts to distinguish his theories from arrant(a) or localise utilitarianism. However, it would seem that he does non remove the problems of direct utilitarianism, but he manages to bring into being new ones. An act (for act utilitarians) or rule (for rule utilitarians) is right if and only if the act or rule maximizes the utility of every last(predicate) in all persons (or sentient beings). 1 Following the direct utilita rianism approach, there is no tractableness for pitying emotion or consequences. In addition, there is no true definition of what is right for all persons. An example would be a decision by a surgeon in an emergency means to save the life of an elderly priest or that of a young man that was in a terrible car accident.By the direct utilitarianism approach, the surgeon would have to ascertain what would be best for all persons. Such a decision would realistically be made deliberation and goats rue instinct. The direct utilitarianism approach does not answer what is best for everyone in this type of circumstance. The problem with Hares approach is one can prove virtually any moral dilemma with custom tailored and non-realistic circumstances where wild sweet pea instinct would be used as the determining factor for the situation. There are no set guidelines for defining what is moral for these extenuating circumstances.Hare in general often speaks about conflicting desires, and he s eems to adhere to Platos notion that being good coincides with being informed. What Hare fails to address is that some individuals powerfulness desire to do evil. Hare presumes that the individual is going to conform to the standards of society and use deliberation to not commit heinous and horrific acts. With the direct utilitarianism approach, individuals will act for the good of everyone thus more(prenominal) apt(predicate) to conform to moral restrictions placed upon them by society.Hares approach states that individuals will follow gut instinct to do what is moral but at the same time Hares approach calls for individuals to follow deliberation when making some decisions. For the individual that is a sociopath, Hares response would be that the sociopath would condemn those desires at a critical level. 2 With the assumption of individual concurrence to the groups standard, Hare is contracting his gut instinct part of the decision making progress.Hare argues that direct utilit arianism cannot accommodate political rights because the government is an institutional set of rules and regulations. Direct utilitarianism assumes that the government knows what is best for the majority. Hares approach would require the individual to deliberate as to follow the rules set forth by the government. Using Hares approach it would be ethical for an individual to refuse to pay taxes or speed on the highway because there wouldve been a deliberation and analysis based on the critical level of thinking.Hares approach is more direct utilitarianism on the political issues because the individual will most likely make a choice that is inherently good for everyone to avoid negative consequences such as a speeding ticket or imprisonment. Each decision or choice that the individual makes results in some type of consequence. Hares approach to indirect utilitarianism does not address consequences. The direct utilitarianism addresses consequences because the individual is going to fo llow rules that are set forth for the good of the full.Direct utilitarianism requires conformity to social standards to maximize individual happiness. Hares approach requires that the individual deliberate and make a decision. Yet, the some other part of his approach requires the individual to follow gut instinct while conforming to good of the whole to make an ethical decision. Instead of refuting the direct utilitarianism approach, Hare is supporting the notion that we all have a set of rules that we inherently follow.To strictly follow Hares approach to indirect utilitarianism, society would be in total chaos because virtually any circumstance can be manipulated to appear as though the individual was following instinct and thus making a moral decision. There are no overall guidelines for extenuating circumstances with Hares approach to indirect utilitarianism. Hare creates more chaos in trying to refute the direct utilitarianism approach instead of providing solid arguments fo r the nature of human beings and ethical decisions.
Monday, April 8, 2019
Assessing Young Learners Speaking Ability in the Fifth Grade of Three Elementary Schools in Padang Essay Example for Free
Assessing childly Learners address Ability in the Fifth Grade of tierce Elementary Schools in Padang EssayCHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONA. Background of the Problem Communicative view instruction in English pecking makes the focus on English teaching changed. What once became structurally foc employ, it forthwith moves toward meaningful language-focused. Students are not asked to memorize structure-based dialogues without knowing the meaning anyto a greater extent. There are no more grammatically controlled sentences for students meaningless repetition. Dialogues, if used, center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized (Richards Rodgers, 1986). That makes the teaching of utterance becomes the core part of English teaching. Just like the adults, little learners today are also taught language meaningfully and communicatively.However, materialisation learners have distinctive characteristics compared with adult learners. One of them is children are still developing cognitively, linguistically, socially, emotionally, and physically (Teaching Knowledge Test Young Learners Handbook for Teachers, 2010). In other linguistic process, in teaching mouth to them, teachers claim to consider childrens development of skills in the native language first. Young learners also enjoy surveyd and repetitive language more than adults do. They are more likely to play with language than adults are, and they do-nothing be more effectively engaged through stories and games (Peck, 2009).The unlike techniques and approaches in teaching speaking to young learners triadsome to antithetic ways in the speaking discernment. This is the problem faced by Indonesian young learners teachers nowadays. virtually teachers do not know how they should assess their young learners speaking ability some finally aim to skip the speaking perspicacity and focus on pencil-paper-tests. Thus, this research is conducted to discover and reveal ways of assessing young l earners speaking ability.B. Identification of the Problem Based on the background above, the speaking assessment techniques used for young learners should be different from the adult. It should be suited with their cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical development. As we looked upon Language discernment Principles and Classroom Practices by brownish (2010) and integrated it with curriculum standard in Indonesia, KTSP 2006, young learners ordain be better to be assessed in imitative and intensive speaking categories, such as imitating teachers saying, directed response tasks, read-aloud tasks, and dialogue climax tasks. Alternative assessments such as interviews and conferences tail assembly also be applied for them.C. Limitation of the Problem In this research, the problem will be focused on the speaking assessment techniques in the fifth socio-economic class of three selected easy schools in Padang.D. Formulation of the Problem * What kind of speaking assess ment technique used by elementary school English teachers? * Why do they use such techniques?E. Purpose of the interrogation The purpose of this research is to discover and reveal the technique used by English teachers to assess elementary school students speaking ability.F. Significance of the Research Theoretically, this research is aimed to give a description of how speaking assessment for young learners done in Indonesia. Practically, some techniques used by English teachers provided here can be a source of alternative speaking assessment.CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREA. The temper of Assessment There has been various explanation of what assessment is. Brindley (as express in Linse, 2005) refers assessment as collecting selective information and making judgments on a learners knowledge. It means that in assessing students, we need to rise out what students know more or less the subject being taught and how far that find outing has reached the learning indicator.In the comparable line with Brindley solely with an addition, Brown (2010) states assessment as an ongoing process of collecting information about a devoted object of interest according to procedures that are systematic and substantively grounded. In his statement above, Brown implies that the process of collecting and judging students go throughing is not done orderly in one individual(a) time it is done continuously.Harris and McCann (1994) also give an essential note that in doing assessment teachers have to measure the performance of their students and the progress they make, as well as diagnose the problems they have and provide useful feedback. In other words, collecting and judging students intelligence is not enough finding out what becomes students problem and with child(p) advice to them to overcome the problems is also important to create a more successful learning process.Based on the theories above, it can be seen that assessment contracts collecting information abo ut students knowledge and judging their understanding in order to diagnose the learning problems they have so that students can get useful feedback to be more-successful learners.B. The Nature of Speaking As stated in the previous chapter, todays English teaching focuses more on communicative purpose of language learning than in the past. It leads to the more important consideration of speaking skills than in previous time. Just like assessment, there is also various definition of speaking. One of them is from tongue Links (1998) that defines speaking as productive skill in the oral mode that involves more than entirely pronouncing words. Referring to todays communicative view, of course speaking cannot be thought as just pronouncing words it needs to be meaningful, and communicative.Furthermore, Noonan (2003) states that, if pronunciation included, speaking involves three areas mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary), functions (transaction and interaction), and social cultural norms and rules (turn-taking, rate of speech, etcetera. each of them are connected to each other and prove that speaking is not only about what is uttered, merely also the meaning and social purpose.C. The Nature of Young Learners Young learner is a child who is in their first six year of formal education, from age 6 to 12 (Teaching Knowledge Test Young Learners Handbook for Teachers, 2010). Many experts argue that it is beneficial to teach the children English since young age. TKT Young Learners (2010) notes one of the advantages that those children will have positive self-esteem toward English and it will tending them to learn English more once they are adult. That is wherefore teaching English to young learners considered important today. However, young learners have characteristics that make them different from the adults (Teaching Knowledge Test Young Learners Handbook for Teachers, 2010).First, they are still morally, cognitively, psychologically developed. Base d on Piagets theory of cognitive development, children in age 6-12 years old are still in concrete operational thought stage, they already have the ability to do logical reasoning and understand reversibility with the help of concrete objects (Santrock, 1998). It means that explaining theory will not do for them, we need to make them move, do games, sing, etc. Second, young learners often have no obvious reason for learning English. Unlike adults who want to do it because of the career-related reasons or teenagers that do it to pass an exam, young learners do not have concrete reason why they must learn English. However, it does not mean they are not motivated to learn English their goodwill, energy, and admiration to learning overcome that.Third, they may not always have well-developed literacy skills to support their learning of English. Many children in the age of 6-12 years old are just getting to know their first language. It means that as a teacher we need to not have too-hig h expectation and do more. Fourth, young learners often learn slowly and forget quickly. It is related to the first characteristic that young learners are still developed morally, socially, and cognitively. Their still-ongoing developments in those basic things make them forget easily and learn slowly. This is why songs, agmes, and chants do best for them. D. Principles of Assessing Young Learners correspond to METU Open Course Ware (2006), principles of assessing childrens language learning are1. Assessment should be seen from a learning-centered perspective. It means that we cannot get a true assessment by testing kids what they can do alone. It has been stated by many experts that the goal of learning English is to be able to communicate meaningfully in English. Testing students, let alone young children, as a tool to get true assessment will not congruent with the real goal of English learning and it will just be wasting time.2. Assessment should support learning and teaching. T his is something that is not also becomes a problem with young learners, but also with the adult. Before performance-based assessment is introduced, teachers chose paper-and-pencil tests as their source of assessing (Puppin, 2006). It becomes a problematic then since students do not see the connection between the learning and the test they are doing, they see them as two different incongruent things. If the assessment done is congruent with the learning they did, children will feel that what they have learned is useful.3. Children and parents should understand assessment issues. Their understanding will make the assessment process more meaningful since they can insert and supports greatly on behave of childrens English development. On the other hand, if they do not understand why the teacher does this and that, there will be no good communication between these three subjects to help childrens development.E. Techniques of Speaking Assessment Brown (2010) states some techniques of s peaking assessment based on students language development level Imitative Speaking This kind of assessment is intended to see whether students can imitate saying in English correctly. Eventhough it focuses on the accuracy of repeating words, it does not mean that it cannot be communicative and meaningful. Besides, in recent years many experts have discovered that an overemphasis on fluency can sometimes lead to the decline of accuracy in speech.Intensive Speaking There are quaternity tasks in this kind of assessing directed response task, oral questionnaire, and picture-cued task. In oral questionnaires, students are first given time to read the dialogue to get its main idea and to think about the appropriate lines to suffice in. Then, as the tape, teacher spring ups one part orally the students respond. In directed response task, students conjure up a particular grammatical form of a transformation of a sentence. Such tasks are clearly machinelike and not communicative, but th ey do require minimal processing of meaning in order to produce the correct grammatical output.Picture-cued task requires a description from the students. Pictures may be very simple, designed to elicit a word or a phrase, or composed of a series that tells a romance or incident. This task is meaningful since sometime a little sense of humor is injected.Responsive Speaking Assessment of responsive tasks involves brief interactions with an interlocutor, differing from intensive tasks in increased creativity given to the student and from interactive tasks by somewhat limited length of utterances. The kinds of this assessment are question and answer, giving instructions and directions, and paraphrasing. Questions and answers involve oral interaction with teacher.