Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Shoeless Joe Jackson and His Tragedy

In the short story â€Å"Shoeless Joe Jackson comes to Iowa†, Kinsella provides insight about a man who loves Iowa, his wife (Annie), his daughter (Karin), and lastly baseball. The setting of the story takes place on a rural farm in Iowa where Ray made a baseball field because he was told by a voice of a baseball announcer â€Å"If you build it, they will come†. (Pickering pg 740) Ray and Annie had bought this farm, years ago, to plant and cultivate corn and to raise their daughter in a safe environment. Ray, who was a baseball enthusiast, was told to build this field for â€Å"Shoeless† Joe Jackson and his teammates to play baseball.He had no idea on how or why he might even begin to build this great field. So he started small with the field, he built a magnificent left field first for Joe. All the townspeople had heard what Ray was building and they thought he must have been crazy. Because he was taking a big section of his corn field and was turning it into a baseball diamond, he was going to be losing a huge profit in the harvest season for years to come. His remarkable wife went along with these plans and said,†Oh love, if it makes you happy, you should do it. †(Pickering pg 741) So Ray began on this project which took him several months just to build the eft field for Mr. Jackson, whom he had never even met. So when Ray hears the baseball announcers voice â€Å"If you build it they will come†,(Pickering pg. 740) he ,of course, was Shoeless Joe Jackson. Joe was born in Brandon Mills, South Carolina in July of 1887 and died in Greenville, South Carolina in December of 1951. Joe Jackson was the best left fielder that Ty Cobb had ever seen. Joe’s glove is the â€Å"place where triples go to die. †(Pickering pg. 741) Shoeless Joe Jackson was an American baseball player who played Major League Baseball in the early 20th century. He will always be remembered by his performance on the field and for is associat ion with the Black Sox Scandal, in which members of the 1919 Chicago White Sox participated in a conspiracy to fix the World Series. The Black Sox Scandal took place during the 1919 World Series. The conspiracy was the result of the White Sox first baseman Arnold â€Å"Chick† Gandil, whose long lasting ties to the underworld, persuaded a friend who was a gambler that a fix could be pulled off. A New York gangster, Arnold Rothstein, provided the money for the fix. Gandil enlisted several of his teammates, motivated by the dislike of the clubs owner Charles Comisky, whom they perceived as a tightwad, to implement the fix.The owner of the Sox had a reputation for underpaying his players for years. Since some of the guys on the team had ties to the mob, it was easy for them to start to resent other players who were straight-laced and followed the rules. There were a total of 8 players involved in the fix of the World Series. Starting pitchers Eddie Cicotte and Claude â€Å"Lefty † Williams, outfielder Oscar â€Å"Happy† Felsch and shortstop Charles â€Å"Swede† Risberg were all principally involved with Gandil. Although he hardly played in the series, utility infielder Fred McMillan got word of the fix and he threatened that he would go public unless e was in the payoff. â€Å"Sleepy† Bill Burns and â€Å"Shoeless† Joe Jackson, both played for the Los Angeles Angels after the fix of the series, were mentioned in the fix though their involvement has been disputed. I think he was not involved at all but got caught up in some nasty mob dealings. In the infamous World Series, â€Å"Shoeless† Joe Jackson had 12 hits (a World Series record) and a . 375 batting average to lead both teams in the individual statistics. He, also, committed no errors and threw out a base runner at home plate. â€Å"Ultimately, eight Chicago players and various small-time gamblers were indicated in the candal. At a 1921 criminal trial, a strong case was presented to establish that some â€Å"Black Sox† players-as they became known- had in fact thrown games, but all the defendants were found not guilty when prosecutors failed to prove that they had violated any criminal statutes in doing so. †(Morrow pg 1) I, also, found out that there is significant evidence that owner of the Chicago White Sox, Charles Comisky, may have known about the fix and tried to cover it up in order to avoid a scandal. No formal charges have ever been brought up against him or any other officials. In the ook â€Å"Shoeless The Life and Times of Joe Jackson,† there were several letters written back and forth between Jackson and Comisky. Joe Jackson was asking for the loser’s share of the 1919 World Series which amounted to $3,154. 27 per man. Comisky had asked Jackson to return to Chicago to receive the payment but Jackson had prior obligations in Savannah, Ga. These letters continued for several months but to no avail. Ja ckson, also, wanted a new contract worth $10,000 per year. Comisky was only willing to pay him $7,000 per year but had already signed Eddie Collins and Buck Weaver to ontracts that was well above his asking price. Mr. Jackson had started his own business in Ga. which was a Billiard business. He explained, in his letters, that the contract that Comisky had offered was not up to par with the other great players of his era. He explained in one of those letters to Comisky that after taxes and having to live in the city where he played, there would not be enough money to keep the Billiard business on its feet. In the letter, Jackson explains that he has played for less money than any other player of his caliber. He, also, writes that if he cannot pay his asking price thatComisky needs to trade or sell him to another team that would pay him his asking price. Comisky shopped his name around to other organizations and teams but none of them wanted to sign him. In the last letters that they wrote to each other, Comisky explained that he did not receive any other offer from any other team to sign him. Jackson went on to write him back explaining that he would play for anything less than $10,000 per year but he, also, explained that he had heard that Comisky had given a raise of $2,300 to â€Å"Happy† Flesch who had only hit . 192 in the World Series. Finally,Comisky took matters into his own hands and sent Harry Grabiner to Savannah to obtain Jackson’s signature for the new contract. Mr. Grabiner informed Jackson that his new contract with the team would be increased by $2,000 per year and he was pleased with that contract. â€Å"This is where the stories diverge. Grabiner later insisted that Jackson knew that the ten day clause was included in the contract and that Jackson signed it in the house in Katie’s (Jackson’s wife) presence. Jackson claimed that his wife was not home at the time and that he signed it on the hood of the car only afte r Grabiner ssured him that the ten-day clause was not included. That evening, Harry Grabiner, headed back to Chicago with Jackson’s signed contract. The ten day clause appeared in Article 10 on the third of the contracts four pages. †(Fleitz pg 205) In summary Ray was building this field for these 8 players who were banned for life to come play and finish out their careers with nothing hanging over their heads. This field, on Ray’s land, would be famous and all the townspeople could come and watch some of the greatest baseball players to ever play the game. Works Cited Fleitz, David L.Shoeless The Life and Times of Joe Jackson. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland &Co. Inc. 2001 Morrow, David. Black Sox Scandal. In Campbell, Ballard C. , PH. D. , gen. ed. 2008 Pickering, James H. Fiction 100. Pearson Education. Inc. 2012 Shoeless Joe Jackson and his Tragedy Jason Ebeling English Composition 2 Professor Moeller Nov. 15 2012

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Abortions in America

Abortion is a very touchy topic in America. For several decades there has been a debate if abortions are legal or not. In this paper I will attempt to take you through the history of abortions with a specification on politics. The practice of abortion dates back to ancient times. Pregnancies were terminated through a number of methods, including tools, taking abortion herbs, the use of sharpened tools, abdominal pressure, and other techniques. In western parts of the world during the 20th century various women's rights groups, doctors, and social reformers successfully worked to have abortion bans repealed. Various anti-abortion laws have been on every state statute book since at least 1900. During this time, abortion was illegal in 30 states, and legal in 20 states under certain circumstances. These circumstances were rape, incest, and date drug. Abortions were seen as only need in life and death situations. The criminalization of abortion accelerated during the 1860’s. By the 1900’s it was generally punished as a felony. In the 1930’s approximately 800,000 abortions a year were performed by licensed physicians. In 1962 Colorado became the first state to legalize abortions but only under the circumstances I previously disclosed. Soon similar laws were passed in California, Oregon, and North Carolina. In 1970, Hawaii was the first state to legalize abortions on the request of the mother. This lead the way for New York, to repeal its laws and allow women to terminate their pregnancy up to 24 weeks. A law in Washington, DC allowed abortion to protect the life and health of the women, was challenged in the Supreme Court in 1971. The case was United States v. Vuitvch. In this case, the Supreme Court upheld the law, stating that â€Å"health† meant a women’s physical and mental well-being. This allowed women in Washington, DC to receive abortions. The Supreme Court decision, Roe v Wade set guidelines for the availability of abortion. The case established that the â€Å"must be considered against important state interests in regulation. † The Supreme Court ruled that the Texas statute forbidding abortion except when necessary to save the life of the mother was unconstitutional. The decision in this case was later modified by the Planned Parenthood v Casey case in 1992. It upheld the decision on central holding, but it revised the trimester system with the point of fetal viability. It defined fetal viability as the states right to verride the women’s autonomy. The Constitutional protection of women’s decision to terminate her pregnancy comes from the due process clause of the Fourth Amendment. The Fourth Amendment states that no state shall â€Å"deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law†. In a more recent case, on April 18, 2007 the Supreme Court issued a ruling in the case Gonzales v. Carhart. The case dealt with the federal law â€Å"Partial Abortion Ban Act of 2003†. President George W. Bush signed it into law. The sentence that carried for breaking this law was up to 2. 5 years. Since 1995, The House of Representatives and U. S. Senate, which was led by the Congressional Republicans, tried several times to pass laws banning the specific type of abortion known as, partial abortions. After much emotion filled and long debates on the issue of partial abortions, President Bill Clinton vetoed the bills in April 1966. In October 1997 on the evidence that they did not include health expectations. Other tries of the Congress to override the veto were not successful. On October 2, 2003, the house approved once again the measure of banning partial abortions with a vote of 281-142. With this law in place, a doctor or physician could face up to 2 years in prison and could face civil lawsuits. Women who undergo partial abortions could not be prosecuted under this law. The law did include an exemption for women whose life was threatened without the partial abortions. On October 21, 2003 they passed a similar law with the help of demarcates with a vote of 64-34. The bill was signed by President George W. Bush on November of 2003. The federal judge blocked its enforcement in several states hours after it became law. The Supreme Court still enforced its ruling of a nationwide ban on the procedure of partial abortions from the case Gonzales v Carhart. The Supreme Court made a statement stating that just because there was a 5-4 ruling; The Partial Abortion Ban Act does not cause problems with the previous court decisions towards abortions. The current interpretation of the U. S. Constitution by The U. S. Supreme court based on the landmark case of Roe v Wade in 1973 is that abortion is legal but may be illegal by the states to a certain degree. This means abortions may be illegal from state to state but under the conditions of ape or incest for an example, an abortion can be performed in those states. Many states in America have passed laws to restrict late term abortions. Also, in many states, parental notification is required for minors to receive an abortion, and in clinics, it is mandatory to tell the patient abortion risk information before the procedure is started. The article that is most de bated from The Constitution when it comes to abortions, is the Fourteenth Amendment, which states: ’ All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. † The one problem with legalizing abortions is trying to determine when a fetus is able to live outside of the womb on its own. The majority rule in the case of Roe v Wade states that a fetus is viable at or after 28 weeks but can occur earlier. Viability can even occur as early as 24 weeks. With the technology advances over the last thirty years, a fetus is able to live outside of the womb a few weeks earlier than 24 weeks. These advances only make it harder to determine whether abortions are legal or illegal. To this date, in the youngest child to survive as a premature was delivered at weeks and 3 days. Due to the split laws between the federal government and state government, to get a legal abortion varies from state to state. Eighty-seven percent of U. S. territories and states have no abortion provider. Only seventeen states offer coverage of abortions under state healthcare plans. Legalizing abortions in the United States is a major issue that frequently arises during the nomination of people to the U. S. Supreme Court. With that being said, many nominees prefer to remain silent about that issue during their hearing because abortions may come up while their a judge. On April 1, 2004, President Bush signed The Unborn Victims of Violence Act. The act allows two specific charges to be filled against someone who kills a pregnant mother. One is for the mother and the other is for the fetus. The act specifically bans charges against the mother and the doctor when it comes to abortion procedures. Various states have various laws when it comes to abortions. In March 2006, South Dakota Governor Mike Rounds signed a law that made performing abortions a felony. It was repealed in November 2006. In February 2006, Mississippi’s House Public Health Committee voted to approve a ban on abortions. The bill died after the house and senate failed to agree on compromise legislation. Several states enacted â€Å"trigger laws† which would only take effect if the Roe v Wade decision was overturned. In February of 2009, The Personhood of Children Act, was passed by the North Dakota House of Representatives. The law was later defeated in the North Dakota Senate because if it was passed it would likely have been used to challenge Roe v. Wade. In February 2012, the Virginia House of Delegates passed House Bill 1 with a vote of 66-32. The law outlawed all Virginia abortions by declaring that the rights of persons apply from the moment sperm and egg unite. The second bill that was passed 63-36 vote, that requires a women to have an ultrasound before undergoing abortions. The public opinion towards abortions is split. It’s almost the 40th anniversary of Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision, majority of Americans believed abortion should be illegal in or most cases. This was conducted by the NBC News and The Wall Street Journal. Approx. seventy percent of respondents oppose Roe v. Wade being over turned; forty-eight percent supported it being over turned. This paper was written to address the abortion topic in America with a specific on politics. The paper stated the views and laws from the earliest days of abortions to now present day. The laws have changed over time, but still with decades to come you can count on abortions still to be a controversial.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Lecture Summaries #5 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Lecture Summaries #5 - Coursework Example However, upon assuming his position as the president, Franklin Roosevelt’s determination to make effective changes to the economy led him into developing a program identified as the New Deal. This program was a representation of the culmination of long-term trends towards abandoning the â€Å"laissez-faire† capitalism to regulating the railroads, as well as the introduction of a number of reform legislations. The main aim of the program was to rid the nation from the financial illness that was paralyzing it. Some of the changes realized after the introduction of the New Deal are inclusive of the adoption of a program advocating for cooperation between the government and private businesses. On the other hand, President Roosevelt established a central economic planning in order to rescue capitalism as well as guarantee that the government was democratically representative. He used funds from the government to uplift the economy (America in the 20th Century, 10). Conversely, the New Deal utilized government policies for the redistribution of wealth from the wealthy individuals in the country, to the individuals in need. One of the causes leading to the economic crisis during the great depression was the heavy loans the banks gave to investors for stock purchases. The second New deal led to the introduction of social reform programs that would strengthen the commitment of the nation to create jobs and provide security against unemployment, illnesses and old age. The articles on the Second World War provide a revelation of some of the factors that led to its commencement as well as the way Americans responded to the war. Some of the factors leading to the commencement of the war include the fact that there were a number of unresolved issues from the First World War, outbursts from the worldwide economic depression and the stock crash in the year 1929, and American isolationism among other factors. One of the causes leading to

Sunday, July 28, 2019

The Clipper Chip Controversy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Clipper Chip Controversy - Essay Example The clipper managed to  perform  the above task with the  help  of certain numerical keys. Controversy sprung from the fact that the US government sought to  retain  exclusive  but regulated knowledge of such algorithms. That way, the government could eavesdrop on any conversation it considered  suspect. However, this would only be possible with a nod from the courts. As it happened, from ordinary citizens through  business  people to senior military personnel,  virtually  everyone had an opinion on the issue. On one hand,  there were civil libertarians glibly expressing their fear of the technology  being used  to  aid  a  big  brother regime that would  easily  stifle freedom of speech. On the other, cogent arguments in favor of keeping an eye and ear on the criminal  activity  were made. This paper endeavors to present arguments on both sides of the divide all through to the final part of the debacle. The privacy constituency rooted it s opposition to the clipper on the way it  was envisioned  to operate. ... stance if an ordinary citizen happened to stumble upon damaging information about the government, it was an  act  in futility for  him or her  to  attempt  to  pass  an encrypted  dossier  to someone in the media. The government’s operatives would work relentlessly to  intercept  it before some loudmouth spilled the beans if it (the government) knew about the leak. In such situations, no one was willing to tell the truth about anyone because the risk of  being caught  would be  unbearable. Similarly, it is quite thinkable that the government would use its backdoor privileges to access information otherwise supposed to be  confidential  about political competitors. In short, the charge from this end was that the chances of a  regime  turning  rogue  and harassing people for having unfavorable opinions, are exceptionally high with the clipper chip. The Clinton Administration countered this line of reasoning with a poignant statement that read; unfortunately, the same encryption technology that can help Americans protect  business  secrets and personal privacy can also be used by terrorists, drug dealers and other criminals (Lewis 26). Even during those pre-9/11 days, it was easy to see how a determined and sophisticated terrorist could benefit from access to encryption technology that no man, woman or  spirit  can penetrate. Plans to smuggle  would-be  murderers, take  flight  lessons, hijack airplanes and  crash  them into skyscrapers would be swapped across cyberspace without detection. Although the usefulness of the clipper in matters of defense is  somewhat  clear, its  inadequacy  is even clearer. Thoughtful opponents of the clipper observed no criminals or terrorists smart enough to use a  system  to use data encryption would be  dumb  enough to use

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Double reacation essay about David Cole interviews Dr. Francizek Piper

Double reacation about David Cole interviews Dr. Francizek Piper + David Cole on the Phil Donahue Show - Essay Example Buildings in Auschwitz and in other camps which are the alleged gas chambers of the holocaust were able to hold 700 to 800 people and openings in the roof allowed chemicals to reach those within the chamber who were told they were going to be showered or treated for lice or scabies infections. The designs allowed the doors to be airtight and bricks were used to cover windows. Disinfection signs were in place in order to keep prisoners calm. Those with no ventilation system installed took much longer for ventilation, and false showers were installed to keep with the propagation that these chambers located in the crematoriums were used for bathing and disinfection (The Seven Gas Chambers at Auschwitz). One of the chambers was able to contain around 2500 people; gas was released which would take 10-15 minutes to suffocate those inside and ventilation time was allowed before the chambers were able to be reopened. Many survivors who were indeed showered in such chambers found it miraculous to know that other chambers were used to disperse gas. Some youth in these chambers survived somehow, watching those around them die of suffocation (Weber). The Donahue interview I found somewhat shocking considering the massive amount of testimony and evidence of the holocaust. The Bergen-Belsen articles written by Mark Weber seem much more likely to be true and accurately represent facts as they were known by many. David Cole has examined actual sites, conducting forensic testing’s and viewing these ‘alleged gas chamber.’ Cole states his studies are based on his own observations yet he also shows a supposed video which he suggests provides definitive evidence that indeed there were delousing and disinfestation chambers with evidence differentiating between the two. Much of the arguments presented in the Donahue show seem to belittle the horrific fact that millions of Jews died as a result of the Holocaust regardless of the final cause of

Friday, July 26, 2019

My Personal Pedagogy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

My Personal Pedagogy - Essay Example This essay shall demonstrate how my personal philosophy and pedagogy works together to define the kind of teacher that I am and strive to be. It will discuss four aspects of my pedagogy namely assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation as underpinned by my values of being a lifelong learner, being reflective, valuing positive, respectful and harmonious relationships and listening with an open heart and mind (as seen in Appendix 1).Edwards & Nuttal’s (2005) contention is that pedagogy is more than just understanding children and the curriculum and how they fit together to suit children’s learning. It goes beyond that. I agree with them that pedagogy also involves understanding the children’s contexts, personal experiences outside the academic sphere and factors around the wider community (Edwards & Nuttal, 2005). Such a viewpoint elevates the educator as an â€Å"active interpreter†(Edwards & Nuttal, 2005) of the context of children’s learni ng and not a mere interpreter of a prescribed curriculum. As an active interpreter, I believe assessment of children is the keen observation of how children learn, grow and develop and interpret these observations in accordance to the expected developmental milestones for their particular stage of development. It is all about my knowing more about children through noticing and recognizing their learning preferences and disposition for learning (Claxton & Carr, 2004). I try to see how curious, they are and how persistent and open they are in learning what they want. I try to see how curious, they are and how persistent and open they are in learning what they want. My assessment of children is guided by what I know about how they should be behaving, thinking, feeling, interacting, communicating, etc. at their particular age level (Fleer, 2006).I know that even if there are patterns of development, they are still unique individuals who possess their own individual personalities and abi lities. When I do observe them, I gather information about them so I can further improve outcomes for them with the planning that I will do for and with them. My reflection in Appendix 2 shows how I have observed children’s interests to further their learning while it also enhances my own learning. As a teacher, I have engaged in never-ending observation as a way to â€Å"obtain information†, (Quality in Action, 1998, p. 86). This is part of my value of learning. I always strive to be a keen observer as I look into their interactions, choice of resources, use of language (see in Appendix 3). In that reflection, it shows the change in how I believed learning should be, as I used to think it was more academic learning that should be pursued. But working in a real early childhood centre has made me realize that learning is more about child-centred initiations such as engaging in play, arts, sports, etc. to pursue their own interests so they fulfil their hunger for learnin g rather than from a teacher-directed activity, although I am not saying children will not learn from that too. Also in the assessment example in Kei Tua ote Pae (MoE, 2004), I agree what the social-cultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978 ) recommends - an assessment method which gives children the power to set their own goals, assess their own achievements and become responsible for their own learning. This is exhibited in the portfolio of their works which give voice to children’s thinking and abilities (Ministry of Education, 2004, 2005) (see in appendix 4 ). My value for positive, respectful and harmonious relationships also pushes me to observe the children with their families so I am able to see the dynamics of their relationship. Part of my assessment includes that I get to know about the children’s whanau and ask about what goes on in their families in such a way that I maintain a respectable distance so I do not probe too personally (as see in Appendix 5). I agree wit h Rinaldi (2001) contention that making child’

Impact upon the Merger Case between BRITIVIC and AG Barr Essay

Impact upon the Merger Case between BRITIVIC and AG Barr - Essay Example The main aim of this article is to analyze the case of the merger of Britvic as a strategy to compete with Coca-Cola and the various issues that arose post-merger. In the UK, carbonated soft drink market can be identified as tight oligopolistic market structure according to Shepherd’s classification of markets but majority dominated by Coca-Cola with a 57% market. Britvic is one of Coca Cola’s rival in a position of the second biggest but only with 14% market share. Faced with the much stronger market position of Coke Cola Company, in 2013, Britvic announced the intention to merge with AG Barr, which has the third biggest market share by 4%, as one way of acquiring enough strength to compete with the Soft Drinks Giant. In response, the Office of Fair Trade announced the need to make a thorough competition analysis for the two companies to identify the possible impacts of the merger in the market. The merger between is a typical horizontals merger as both companies produce the homogenous product. According to Britvic, a merger will help the company to gain enough ground to compete with Coca-Cola which would reduce their dominance because horizontal integration in the industry would have the significant impact upon changing of the market structure. If the monopoly effect in the industry can be declined due to two small market share equipped companies combined to compete against the dominant company, the consumers will have a higher bargaining power and may have the opportunity of purchasing soft drinks at a cheaper price. However, the Office of Fair Trade identifies that the merger will result in the formation of two giants, which will reduce completion and the risk of hiked prices after the merger.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Biology introduction assignment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Biology introduction assignment - Research Paper Example These species are found in Ontario, Canada. Under the Species at Risk Legislation of Ontario, the Northern map and the Snapping turtles are species of Special Concern while the Blanding’s and the Musk turtles are threatened. The greatest risk for these species is being run over on roads and highways. Typically, turtles look for loose, sandy soils to lay their eggs in. But because exposed soil may be difficult to find in natural habitats, turtles are attracted to the artificially-created potential nesting sites such as shoulders of roads, railroad embankments, gravel drives and earthen dams. While they get to and from such locations, the turtles become vulnerable to both vehicular traffic and predators. Genomes evolve as a result of continuous accumulation of mutations. This means that the amount of variation in nucleotide sequences in genomes indicates how recently those genomes have shared a common ancestor. If two genomes have diverged recently in the past, it is expected that they would have much fewer differences in their nucleotide sequences than two genomes whose mutual ancestor is more ancient (Tanaka & Aranishi 2013). Thus, by comparing several genomes, it is possible to figure out their evolutionary relationships. In most of the studies that use molecular markers, the predominant classes are mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite nuclear DNA. Mitochondrial DNA has an important advantage in all phylogenetic research because it is inherited from the maternal line (Chung 2013). This fact facilitates the monitoring of its transmission along the different phases, starting in the early evolution. Another advantage is that Mitochondrial DNA has a high level of variability and a hi gh rate of mutation, compared with the nuclear DNA ( Rubinoff and Holland 2005), in spite of the fact that it does not encode the information for the synthesis of many proteins. This fact makes it ideal for the

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Emerging technologies proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Emerging technologies proposal - Essay Example An interesting consequence of this is that materials with a negative refractive index have been constructed that can focus light much more finely than conventional lenses and can also be used for energy harvesting (Ball, 2007). The study and construction of metamaterials has given a new direction to the field of Plasmonics, the study of Plasmons. These are small waves of electron density that are produced by using light. Using Plasmons, optical signals can be squeezed into very small wires. The induction of plasmons in metamaterials can induce extraordinary optical and magnetic properties in them. Together, these two developments can be used to envisage higher capacity optical data storage and telecom systems that are ultrafast, compact and highly integrated (Atwater, 2007). The Technology Review, the publication from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has identified Metamaterials as one of the top ten emerging technologies in a special review. They offer significant size reduction in optical data storage and computation. When combined with plasmonics, they demonstrate electromagnetic properties that are impossible to achieve with conventional materials. Thus, they can be effective circuit elements of very small size but increased complexity and performance. They can also enable the Radio Frequency (RF) signals to be shaped and controlled in a completely novel way. This will miniaturize the devices and processors for computers, help the information processing be faster. Eventually, this technology could change the future of telecommunications and data storage. I am interested in the application of plasmonic metamaterials to computer chips in the IT industry. Miniscule plasmonic devices with arrays of metamaterial stripes and gaps can be produced to act as computer chips. The arrangement of these arrays acts as a plasmonic circuit that can convey much more data at a significantly higher rate than conventional

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Pros and Cons of Our Human and Social Society Essay

Pros and Cons of Our Human and Social Society - Essay Example When we look around, some of the most trivial illustrations of a human’s need for order that we all frequently witness may be: bookmarks in a student’s textbook separating the chapters for quicker reference in future, index of a journal, a library catalog, tagging at a shoe store or labeling of inventory at a factory. During the day we come across many such other tools that the human mind evolved to make life simpler and efficient, which escape our notice. But when we view our environment broadly, one man-made simplification mechanism that we largely depend on is technology. Bringing more and more technology in daily life is one major means that the humans adopted to deal with the chaos around them. Dependence over technology is inevitable since it seamlessly caters not only the human need for order but it also saves time. Every person, regardless of his profession or his station in society, would fall in with the fact that technology not only makes life simpler but quicker too. Every system of our society may it be a home, a school, a hospital, an office or an industry, runs on technology today. Globalization was unthinkable before the origin of technology. So I think it would not be wrong to state that technology itself is a way of life. Moving on, let us shift towards the less tangible yet apparent mechanism of chaos-management brought into being by mankind i.e. multi-tasking. The bookish definition of human multitasking is that it is highest level of productive usage on ones capability of handling multiple tasks at the same time. An example of multitasking is talking on the phone while walking on the footpath and munching a burger all together. The necessity of multitasking stemmed from the human need to make up for the ever-deficient time while bringing order to his daily life. Having said that, lets flip the coin, and analyze the other side of the subject; bringing orderliness to daily life to

Monday, July 22, 2019

Shanghai University of Finance and Economics Essay Example for Free

Shanghai University of Finance and Economics Essay 1. Introduction Britvic Soft Drinks has a long and rich history. At first this company was then little more than a home business run from a chemists shop. Soon the company was producing all kinds of originally concocted soft drinks. It was only in 1949 that the Britvic brand was formally launched into the marketplace. Following the Second World War, Britvic went from strength to strength. In 1971, the British Vitamin Product Company formally changed its name to Britvic. Now, Britvic has two branded soft drink business which  supplies wide range of products. But Britvic has taken a hit, they improve position. Through marketing campaigns and drench brains campaign, including TV adverts and establish. It gives brand a great support and fit with the personality of the brand. Britvic increases market share and grow consumer awareness of its brands. Via fast moving and use different campaigns in various market. But Britvic also have some negative, for example the main consumer groups are young people. The old man Pay more attention to health. So Britvic need in keep original strength, for more consumer groups make action. Britvic places strong emphasis on brands and creating brand loyalty. They plan to launch a Tango, designed to attract older consumers. To expand consumption groups and have more benefits. 2.0 Key characteristics of the marketing concept 2.1 Marketing â€Å"Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers. Marketing might sometimes be interpreted as the art of selling products, but selling is only a small fraction of marketing. As the term Marketing may replace Advertising it is the overall strategy and function of promoting a product or service to the customer. † (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing) Other marketing definitions are mentioned in the book and PPT is: â€Å"Selling goods that do not come back to customers who do at a profit which satisfied shareholders using means which satisfy other stakeholders.† (Source: SQA, 2006) â€Å"Marketing is process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others.†(PPT) From those three definitions I think marketing is an activity. Marketing activities and strategies result in making products available that satisfy customers while making profits for the companies that offer those products. Marketing is delivered to the client satisfaction profit through the conversion. 2.2 Three key characteristics of the market concept The company should identify and define customer needs and wants as well as their expectations. All goods and services produced by the firm must satisfy the customer needs. Then they will keep returning as a frequent caller and purchase more goods. All departments, functions and sections of the business  must work together to meet the main objectives of the organization. You should let your employee satisfaction of their salary, and provide good working conditions, so that they will continue to work hard. Must follow government’s laws and pay taxes to create honesty. Marketing concept assumes that profit can only be achieved when customers are satisfied. The customers are entitled to a reasonable product for a reasonable price, while the firm is also entitled to a reasonable profit for a reasonable product. And company must be enough profit made to keep the business in operation. To ensure these characters, a successful company can be formed. 3.0 Britvic’s micro and macro environment A collection of companies that carry out similar tasks or provide similar benefits is called an industry. These organizations exist within an environment, which exerts an influence on the operations of the industry and the individual organizations within it. 3.1 Micro and Macro environment â€Å"The micro environment refers to the forces that are close to the company and affect its ability to serve its customers. It includes the company itself, its suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors, and publics.† â€Å"The macro environment refers to all forces that are part of the larger society and affect the microenvironment. It includes concepts such as demography, economy, natural forces, technology, politics, and culture.† 3.2 PEST Analysis The PEST include political, economic, sociocultural, technological. Political factors are government meddling in the economy. If policy having changes, the market must make the corresponding change. Economic factors include economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates and the inflation rate. Economic factors can influence the enterprise operation. For example, exchange rates can influence of import and export goods. Social factors include the cultural aspects and include health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safety. This  factor can tell enterprise how to operate. To find a most conforms to the social needs of the operation. Technological factors include technological aspects such as RD activity, automation, technology incentives and the rate of technological change. The technological factors can change cost of production, how a business will run. 3.3 These environment relate with Britvic There have new rules on television advertising of food and drink to children aged fewer than 16 has led to the use of non-television campaigns. So young consumers become reduces, Britvic’s advertising strategy failures. In 2008, soft drinks sales decline due to the economic downturn. At that time consumers seek value for money. So soft drink was proved to be elastic demand. It cannot avoid the pressures of the economic crisis. Britvic can sell cold drinks in summer and in winter sell hot drinks. It is a new opportunity to make the drink market development. Package technology is a significant development in Britvic. Use bottled instead of glass bottle, it can make transportation more convenient. And nowadays the packages of soft drink are more and more advanced. At the same time it can meet customer demand and reduce the cost. 4.0 Important of market research and important gathered 4.1 What is marketing research? â€Å"Market research consists of testing the market to determine the acceptance of a particular product or service, especially amongst different demographics. It is used to establish which portion of the population will or does purchase a product, based on age, gender, location, income level and many other variables. Market research allows companies to learn more about past, current and potential customers, including their specific likes and dislikes.† 4.2 The importance of information Companies need information about their customer needs, marketing environment and competition. Companies can follow their information to sure how their business will run. Marketing managers do not need more information, they need better information. 4.3 Types of market research The types of market research is defining the problem and research objectives; developing the research plan for collecting information; implementing the research plan collecting and analyzing the data; interpreting and reporting the finding. Market research includes exploratory research, descriptive research and causal/predictive research. There are two main sources of marketing research data: Secondary research and Primary research. Secondary, or ‘desk’ research uses existing information, collected originally for some other purpose and now being used a second time. â€Å"When research is conducted to unearth original data, it is called primary research. To do this, an original research plan must be devised which will encompass, data collection, data input and then the production and analysis of the subsequent results. Due to the sometimes lengthy duration of this research it can often be expensive to conduct. However, because the research is original, the results gather ed will be more relevant to the needs of the client.† 4.4 Type of information The gathering information includes Secondary information and Primary information. â€Å"Primary information is information that has been obtained first hand, or is original. Primary information is the exact opposite of secondary information. Primary; original, first hand, principle, first priority information; knowledge there are many forms of primary information, these include; surveys (that you have conducted), interviews, human resources and so forth.† Primary information is the original materials which have not been filtered through interpretation, it is someone want to gain some information then he through statistical get conclusion. It is even no evaluation by a second party. â€Å"It is information compiled/generated/created by computer. Secondary information can be deleted and regenerated at any time. Secondary Information is information that is derived from other information.† Secondary information may be after a second use. So it is may no use value 4.5 The research in Britvic Britvic can research its customers. To found the main consumer groups. Britvic can make a questionnaire issue to each human that purchase their products to make the product meet the customers’ need. Then they can find the main consumer groups with Britvic is teen-agers. And then Britvic plan to launch a Tango variant called Tango Clear with no added sugar, designed to attract older consumers. The move can make to improve its current market conditions and have a group of constant consumers. The company also can take some new projects to better meet the needs of customers. The primary research strengths are dealing with problems very accurate, the weakness is time consuming, Britvic can get the original information, but it will take much time and the cost is expensive. However the result of research is more in line with customer demand. Secondary research strengths are fast and easy to get, weaknesses are collected for other, Britvic can easily get a rough answer, but it is easy to get. I suggest the Britvic need a market research before developing Tango Clear in order to figure out the right marketing mix and the wants of customers. With the research, they can avoid the market failure and unnecessary loss. 5.0 Marketing research information collection technique Britvic invention a new product called Tango Clear. This product with no added sugar, designed to attract older consumers. Before this product develops Britvic can have a survey such as questionnaire. This action is Britvic go through survey on consumers tastes preference determined. From the survey, company know what flavor is older customers prefer. So they can development this new product with this survey’s information. Tango has two star flavor products. The two products have an excellent sale. This product is the first time that keep the older customer change their opinion from a product specialized aim at children. Therefore, there will take more customers to buy this product. Then a high brand loyalty has been established. Primary research include: qualitative research and quantitative research. Qualitative research tends to know the opinion and view of people. And the quantitative research tends to find the statistical information. If Britvic used In-depth interviews, they can gain the information clearly and particular. But this way is so expensive and waste too much time. So we do  not recommend Britvic using this method. If Britvic used postal surveys, it is very convenience to the company. But it must need much time to receive reply. Britvic can use a qualitative research techniques that focus group. Britvic need to promote the new product for older customer. So they can only take a survey from older customer. 6.0 Market segmentation and targeting 6.1 market segmentation â€Å"Market segmentation is a marketing term referring to the aggregating of prospective buyers into groups (segments) that have common needs and will respond similarly to a marketing action. Market segmentation enables companies to target different categories of consumers who perceive the full value of certain products and services differently from one another.†   Levels of market segmentation can divide markets into smaller segments. It can be reached more efficiently and effectively with products and services that match their unique needs. Market segmentation represents an effort to increase a companys targeting precision. It include: Mass marketing, it means same product to all consumers; Segment marketing that difference products to one or more segments; Niche marketing that different products to subgroups with in segments; Micromarketing, it means products to suit the tastes of individuals and locations. And the Micromarketing included Local marketing- tailoring brand s/ promotions to local customer group; Individual marketing- Tailoring products and programs to the needs of individual customers. Standards of segmentation: Company can accord age, life, style, etc. to segmentation the market. For example Red Devin, it is a sport energy drinks, It mainly provide physical strength consumption huge young people drinking. So Red Devin’s market has according to age and life. Behavioral segmentation: It is based on variable such as customers usage rate, benefits sought, company brand loyalty, user status, occasions and readiness to buy etc. 6.2 market targeting Target market is defined as being a set of buyers who share common needs or characteristics that the company decides to serve. The selection of potential customers to whom a business wishes to sell products and services is targeting. Successful marketing find a target audiences. Every business set a target after their market research. The targeting involves segmentation the market choosing which segment of the market is appropriate and determining the product that will be offered in each segment. 6.3 The process of marketing segmentation and targeting The process of marketing segmentation The first step in the segmentation process is to establish the market and targeted consumers. The second step is often termed as market mapping and involves structuring the entire marketing procedures based upon the need of the said market. The third step is entirely dependent upon the consumers as the demand by consumers and their suggestions are largely viewed, surveyed, taken into consideration and in many cases implemented. In this step, the actual segment begins to take shape as like-minded consumers having same demands are placed together and are analyzed as a group. Launching of a parallel or a totally new product is viewed in this situation. The last step is catering to the needs of existing consumers and finding new markets. 6.4 benefits of market segmentation and targeting 1) Lower marketing expenses by targeting certain segment. Good for small budget companies; 2) Increase production and marketing efficiency and effectiveness; 3) Increased effectiveness in marketing campaign designed to attract that segment. 4) Improve profitability and enhance market share;  5) Tailoring product offering to a certain market segment improves customer satisfaction. Britvic following all kinds of market segmentation and they are applying market segmentation for targeting. As a result they are getting more and more benefits. They recognize that the Great Depression in UK lead to poorest customers needed an affordable source of Vitamin C and they have made a small glass bottle of juice and the idea was successful from the Geo-Demographic Segmentation. 7.0 Marketing mix in relation to Britvic 7.1 marketing mix The marketing mix is a business tool used in marketing. The marketing mix is often crucial when determining a product or brands offering, and is often  synonymous with the four Ps: price, product, promotion, and place. Product Line: A group of products have similar function, group of customers, distribution channel and price ranges. For example, Britvic have creation different kinds of drink. Product Depth: The more products in a product line are means product line is longer. For example, in one product line of Britvic have many kind of soft drink include lemonades, mineral waters, tonics. Product Length: All production the variety of goods. For example, Britvic have two main products that soft drink and Stills. Product Width: A company the number of the product line. In Britvic have two product lines. The brand of Britvic: Britvic has a constant flow of new product development. Follow different group of customers change their product. It can increase brand loyalty. The factors aff ect the successful launch of the new product in to the market. For example, the product is launched at the wrong time. If Britvic launch a new soft drink at winter, that a wrong time. Because winter is so cold, very few people to buy soft drinks. Therefore this product cannot be successful. 7.2 distribution channel Product distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by a consumer or business user, using direct means, or using indirect means with intermediaries. The traditional distribution model is Manufacturing, Wholesaler, and Retailer. Intermediaries can save time, minimizing compliance costs, and free you up to focus on whats important building your business. The Britvic’s products present to supermarket, cinemas, Hotel, restaurant and Bar. Britvic supplies a wide range of products to approximately 200,000 outlets across the country. It is extensive sales channels. But it may be a little waste. It can decrease their distribution channel, take them dont be so dense. In a public that population is concentrated; the intermediaries can lay up some vending machines. Price is the main of marketing mix. Because it is must be right price. It is must be high enough to cover costs and make a good profit however at the same time be low price to catch the eye of customers. Pricing strategy which company’s use such as price skimming, price penetration, and competitive.  Price skimming involves setting a high price before other competitors come into the market. This is often used of a new product which is not facing little competition. Price penetration is the pricing method of setting a relatively low initial entry price, usually lower than the intended established price to attract new customers. Influence the pricing strategy’s factors. Competitive: If there is strong competition in a market then the price of product will be same for different products. Products may be good or bad. â€Å"Advertising is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage or persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners; sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action.†   Advertising was usually including the type of newspaper, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as blogs, websites or text messages. Even if print and cinema are very attract consumers, but those ways is so expensive.TV is a good method, because everybody can see TV at home. Most of products have life cycle. For example, in summer advertisement with soft drink can be decrease. Because summer is so hot, most of people want to drink Cool coke to relieving summer-heat. Even if no advertisement customers don’t forget this product. But government doesn’t allow large-scale advertising. So the company can change their policy, they can Show the exhibits in the magazine covers. And according radio in troduces their products. â€Å"Direct marketing is a channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses and nonprofits organizations to communicate straight to the customer, with advertising techniques that can include Cell Phone Text messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising.† 8.0 Marketing mix from perspective of service Tangible goods have many accompanying services. For example delivery precision, speed, after services, health concerns, customers services hotline, etc. Those accompanying services all can help company have improving goodwill, improving customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. Process is a procedure. It is a mechanism of activities which is involved in the delivery of a service. It means that how a business provides a good service to the customers and to get success. For example, Britvic juices were sold in small glass bottles which ensured easy transportation. This process can make customer feel convenience. This is good service for Britvic. People who serve the customers are the main in a service. People are considering the most important element in any kinds of service so the rule of staff is very important to influences a customer’s perception of the quality of service. Front side who are dealings with customers they must be highly trained and with good knowledge about their product. The company must train staff communication skills. For example: Ralph Chapman. He is owner of the British. Physical Environment Physical environment is very important for any kinds of business. It is an extended marketing strategy which is used to satisfy the customers by the best advertisement, with either tangible products or service. The marketing strategy should include effectively communicating their satisfaction to potential customers because of the intangibility of service. From physical environment the customers want comfort. For example, if manufacturing environment is very well. It is used to satisfy the customers by the best advertisement. On the other hand it will be not only comfortable for the customers but also for staffs. Britvic also can attempts to develop the online marketing. Online marketing is one of the population ways with shopping today. 9.0 Recommendations Britvic is distributing its products to a wide range of areas such as supermarkets, local shops, restaurant, pubs, hotels, and cinemas. If they wanted to, they can distribute their products for a more broad range. They could distribute to wholesalers and give them exclusive offers which are not available elsewhere. They also can door to door promotion for their product. Britvic is a very successful brand and company, so they could use any kinds  of promotional method. For example they have been used Wimbledon and Pantomimes which gives the brand a lot of publicity. However, it can not only make the advertisement through TV, it also can release it on the magazine, paper and subway advertising. Thus more people will know this brand. The sponsor can launch a lot of marketing activities, let more consumer understand this brand Britvic has a long and rich history, so its’ image in peoples hearts are very clear. Its’ price must be in a scope of public satisfaction. But it a lso can have a low-cost product. This action can take people use a low price to enjoy an old brand of products. So this method must be increased the products sales. 10.0 Summary and conclusion The problem of Britvic is poor summer weather has impact the sales. And the health awareness has driven demand, it also impact the sales of soft drink. Britvic can according to the seasonal introduce the corresponding new products. For example, in cold winter they can develop a hot drink. Britvic should sure their marketing objective. It is aim at the vast numbers of young meanwhile attracted older customers. Britvic can accord older costumers’ flavor to develop some new products. 11.0 Reference The websites visited included: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_environment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_environment http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-market-research.htm http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_contenttask=viewid=802 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_primary_information http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?SecondaryInformation http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marketsegmentation.asp#ixzz2Cx7YQZWq http://www.buzzle.com/articles/market-segmentation-process.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_marketing

Communication and Crisis paper Essay Example for Free

Communication and Crisis paper Essay When a certain crisis is going or a situation at the time then the emergency management office is going to be communicating with one another inside of the office and also outside of the organization as well. When dealing with and issue or matter however you look at it no matter what but also sometimes to it can be very difficult for the organization to meet up with one another at the time to get information about what is going on in the community or town during the time. But when you are working with so many different organization at the time communication can be hard for all of them that why you to come up with an idea for the groups or organization when discussing a certain topic with information you have it must be a design timely matter for things to be cover and also each member must be available while working with one another and also be very cooperation to when it comes to the organizations so you won’t cause the public to have an panic attack about the matter that is going on in the community. That which could cause a lot more of problems down the line for the town as well your own self while a crisis is going on that is why the emergency management office have to be very carefully what they say on news and television and the radio broadcast station about a crisis so they don’t put people under more pressure while communicate about the crisis that is involved the community. When a crisis is taking place at a certain time there are going to be many advantages and challenges with every organization as well to for the public no matter what. The one thing you have to do is make sure there are no challenges or advantages that might make the people in the community have a panic attack or a nervous breakdown while a crisis is going on that which  harms them at the time. But when the emergency management office get certain information about a crisis at the time they must get expertise information from other resources that is adequate when dealing with a certain matter that is why they take precautions also to as well to. Because when a certain crisis is going on people can breakdown under pressure so this is why the organizations should be prepared for things like this also there should be more integrated communication plan in place while collaboration with one another at the very moment about a topic or crisis. Differences in communication processes what one has learned from the scenario and how one might incorporate that knowledge to improve healthcare communication strategies? I know there are so many different types of communications processes that you can used when dealing a certain situation or crisis at the time. But also you must have effective communication with one another while a crisis is going on and making sure you have a better understanding as well to. I think the best way to go with communication method is the effective way because every little thing will be on the television, news station and the radio station along with the social media to because when a certain crisis is going on at the time one must find a way to communicate about the situation or matter that is why now it is a lot more of technology available to communicate today around the world. When trying to send a message out to others that is why one must find out what communication strategy method work for them best when trying to improve healthcare communication skills with one another at that time in the field of medical. Appropriate technology like social media and how technologies may be used to enhance communication when a crisis is going or even an certain situation at the moment there are certain things that should be used and appropriate to use or say in the social media while you are reach out to a lot of people around the world at the time like this. Because sometimes people can go online and add more things about the crisis or situation that might not even be true at all that is why the organization must be very carefully when sending out a message to the public about a certain topic or matter also the  social media must have information to back up a crisis that is happened while they are communicate about topic with information that is mostly reliable and telling the truth as well also before it even get out to the public. Because you don’t want to send out the wrong message to the public because that will be worldwide no matter what also the technology should enhance their communication skills during and time like this in the social media but in the healthcare field they should try to come up with a lot more of communication theory that is going to be very effective in a crisis by having more advancement in technology. How technology may be used differently now then it was during the crisis is in certain crisis at the moment that is going on one must use the appropriate communication skills strategy that fit them very best to their ability with the most accurate information in an crisis form of communication that is being broadcast all over the different types of networks at the very important moment. This is why one must have a certain type of communication method while working with technology today in the social media spotlight that is going to be on the local television stations and radio station as well also to for the emergency management technologies while they are reaching out to the population around the world about a main disaster crisis at the time with updated information in a more timely manner. Media opportunities during a crisis The media have so many different opportunities when it comes to an crisis that is taking place at the time with television airtime and news station and radio station as well also to with the newspaper no matter what. Because this is a lot more of good media time for them with many more opportunities as well when they look at it for the time being that which will put them on top in the big spotlight by promote their self and business to because they know many people are going to watch the news for information about a certain crisis or issue that is being broadcast as well that is going be good for publicity In an crisis that is going on at the moment it is an essential to have good  communication skill for the people inside of the community at the time by let them know what it is going and also by not causing any problems or panic attacks by trying your best to describe what is being done as possible to prevent this matter. By having good communication skills strategy when it all comes down to communicating with each other in all of these types of organization in the field so everyone can get the information in a timely manner and order as well to. But however you look at it there are going to be some challenges and advantages while things is being address to the public about certain situation when talking to the community and town of people. And also when one is discussing an crisis at the time they must make sure it is appropriate to the technology as well also to with the social media that they are going to using in the spotlight and also this is a very good opportunity to the media as well to while a crisis is going on that is a competitions. References Du Pre, A.(2005) Communicating about health: current issues and perspectives (2nd Ed) Boston, M.A MC Graw Hill J, S . H . Randolph, T.B. (2002) toward a synthesis model for crisis communication in the public sector Journal of business and technical communication Retrieved on June 13, 2013 from proquest database Stephenson D, R (1982) How to turn pit falls into opportunities in crisis situation: public relation quarterly retrieved on June 14, 2013

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Online Fashion Business

Online Fashion Business Online Fashion Business – A new trend of teenagers being interested and broad participation. Just type in the phrase online fashion business into the search box on the network, you can get over 10 million results from google, with the names of several fashion brands, big and small. This shows a little nimble, daring the small amount of investment, many people have become young boss without much capital, but the revenue appears in front. Just one click, even though you are at home, at your office or wherever you are, you can also freely select and purchase the products that you like on the internet. Its the new trend of young people being interested and broad participation. Online Sales phrase is not too strange to people. It is a form of offering, introducing the product on the internet and consumers also deals to buy products online. English entrepreneur Michael Aldrich invented online shopping in 1979. Although it appeared for a long time in the big city, this movement received the lively participation of young teenage about 1-2 years. In 2013, we have witnessed a real boom in this business field. In addition, the needs of modern life, consumers have become more intelligent as more and more people decide to shop online. In the survey, 24-hour shopping, Avoiding crowds and convenience topped the list of Reasons Consumers plan to spend more online this year. Grasping the growing demand, the youth have created a business start-up by the internet. Think of the fashion business to open shop simply because they are aesthetic or good computational ability that will make teenagers more easily get a strong attachment to the development of his favorite became a real career. Agree with this point of view, If you have a passion for fashion and love clothes, starting an online clothing boutique apparel friend the perfect business for you. These are the basic elements but decisive, and if teenager understand and apply, they are almost 80% successful, 20% remaining is the creativity, the flexibility and your recklessness when deciding to participate in the online business world. It is necessary to identify the benefits you easily achieve when starting online business. The primary benefit of the online shop is not spending too much initial investment cost for renting store, cabinets, products display racks, store decoration, Therefore, the cost of starting a business is very simple, just a laptop, a camera, online time, and a source of stable products. You do not have to be a headache to calculate, organize expenses to fit with your little startup capital. The second benefit is the advantage and the power of online marketing to advertise widely for your shop. The social networking site is an extremely lively world and possesses a large number of potential customers. At first, customers are often colleagues, friends, and spread to the other provinces. While young entrepreneurs often worry about the lack of customers, but the business through the internet attracted a large customer. The numbers of people visiting the site from commercial communities are often 100-1000 / people / minute. Through that shop owners can more accessible to customers, not limited by geographical distance. This is a characteristic of this type of business. Another benefit of small-scale business is that you will not take a lot of capital, when the risks appear. Because your investment is small, your mistakes do not pay too much financially. Therefore, with the little capital, lack of experience, the online businessis the first direction you should think about if you want to try business. Round of young people success in this field, they were really excited and share practical point of their current job. Thuy Linh, 21, owner of online shop specializing in fashionable South Korea, said: I often learn dressing style of Korean youth and realize that this is one fashion trend is very popular in Vietnam. I have set up a facebook account, add friends to advertise products and tag people in photos. In just one week, Ive sold almost all the goods which I have because the price is too low, an average of 90-180 thousand dollars / item . In addition, the Vietnamese hotgirls are not also missing the opportunity to get rich with sales trends on this network. Secret Lylys success a famous Vietnamese hotgirl is smart, agile and beautiful, so instead of paying rent model, Lyly took photos of herself to introduce shop new products. Business is the most difficult stage first. Early days, the market competition with the branded shop, Lyly feels anxiety and great pressure. Fortunately because customers who have purchased products have continued to come back and invite their friends, it is now a bustling business. Share with their career, online businessis more and more develope by 8X, 9X generations, who are trying to be experienced and successful as those people. Without any success is easy, so it also has many challenges and especially you must take courage and confidence to have a good start. Im a big fan of Small Business Ownership. I think its the backbone of innovation. But to be successful, you first have to have the courage to go for it. Therefore, to business efficiency and long-term development, there are very few who can do that. Moreover increasingly competitive market requires the online business to get a clear development strategy and more important to understand the rules of business on the Internet can be successful. In the business world, everyone is paid in two coins: cash and experience. Take the experience first; the cash will come later. In fact, while many people have invested a lot of money to open a business establishment then quickly closed, it has many businesses are started with a few hundred dollars and development long-term growth. In short, you must have the courage to face to face with any challenge with confiden ce and assertiveness when building your own business.   Ã‚   Besides the great benefits of online shopping, actually, it has defective when you use it. There are plenty of people taking advantage of online business to scam consumers that make people panic and lose faith in online sales. Because, if you are not careful, you will buy products unlike with images, poor quality or loss of the deposit. As a result, they fooled once then make sure they will not look to shop it again. Therefore, even if you do any business or profession, do not look at the immediate interests and forget the long term benefits. The strong growth of the internet has created numerous ways and opportunities to make money especially attractive, in that, there are ways that you ever previously considered impossible. Young people also fast catching up the trend of business and engaged with a large force. The dynamism and creativity of the youth has made many online products very unique. By the way, benefits that this form of trading bringing is not small. However, the trend of hundreds of sellers, buyers thousands, the online store owners need to ensure credibility, quality products, honest pricing. Especially, just a computer network, you can sell to anyone, anywhere, without having to work hard search for a place to open a store, nor headache decorated with or recruiting staff. Starting with little capital, online business is one of the wise choice and quite safe for people who want to try in the field of business. References Online shopping.Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 5 May 2014. Web. 5 May 2014. . CHANG, JOYCE, NIKKI GAMER, and , LAURA KALIEBE. Catalog Comeback: Retailers turn to paper catalogs to boost online sales.Catalog Comeback: Retailers turn to paper catalogs to boost online sales. N.p., 5 May 2014. Web. 5 May 2014. . McFarlin, Kate , and Demand Media. How to Open an Online Clothing Boutique.. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2014. . Rancic, Bill . Small Business Quotes.BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 5 May 2014. . S. Geneen, Harold. Business World Quotes.BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 5 May 2014. .

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Human Need for Love in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay -- Franke

The Human Need for Love Exposed in Frankenstein    Written in 1817 by Mary Shelley, Frankenstein is a novel about the "modern Prometheus", the Roman Titian who stole fire from the gods and gave it to man. The story takes place in several European countries during the late 1700's. It is the recollection of Victor Frankenstein to a ship captain about his life. Victor is a student of science and medicine who discovers a way to reanimate dead flesh. In a desire to create the perfect race he constructs a man more powerful than any normal human, but the creation is so deformed and hideous that Victor shuns it. The creation then spends a year wandering searching for companionship, but everywhere he goes he is shunned and feared. Hating life the creature turns its misery on its creator, killing off Victors family. Frankenstein chases the monster to the North Pole, in an attempt to kill it. Weakened by the cold and long chase, a dying Victor is taken aboard a ship, where he relates his tale to the captain and dies soon after. The next night the monster visits the ship and looks upon Victor's body, ashamed by all of the killing he has done the monster flees into the Arctic Ocean, never to be seen again. Frankenstein appears to be a novel about the evil ways of man, but it is truly about the human soul and how it needs friendship and love to survive. This theme is apparent from the opening letters from the ship captain to his sister in which the captain writes, "I have but one want which I have never yet been able to satisfy ... I have no friend" (Shelley 7). The captain is about to embark on his life's dream of sailing to the North Pole; he has a good crew and a fine ship but still wants a friend to share the excitement with. ... ...nd misery, because he killed all that he loved. It is at this moment that he realizes that he doesn't hate Frankenstein but actually loved him like a father, but was so consumed by self loathing and hate that he killed all he loved. With this passing thought the monster leaps from the ship into the ice filled sea, and is never seen again. At first it is seen as a story about man and the evils he can do, yet Frankenstein is actually about the friendship of the soul. Without this basic need the body either withers away and dies or turns to another source, like murder or drink, to fill the hole. Both fatalities can be seen in the story, with Victor's friendship and the monster's anger. Neither one fills the gap in their soul, but eventually consumes them until they die. Work Cited Shelley, Mary W. Frankenstein. Great Britain: J.M Dent & Sons LTD. 1959.

Friday, July 19, 2019

The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation Essa

The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation When I first began my research for this paper, I was primarily interested in learning more about the role of serotonin in the treatment of anxiety disorders. While I did discover that serotonin is important, especially when it comes to understanding the latest drugs being prescribed by doctors to combat anxiety symptoms, I also learned that researchers are pursuing a number of other "leads" in investigating the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. There has been evidence suggesting that a particular gene, or genes, may be associated with the development of anxiety disorders (1). In addition, the circuitry of the amygdala, an area of the brain that regulates fear responses, is now being studied (2). First, I will briefly summarize my findings regarding serotonin, and then I will offer my own personal reaction. I will focus my response around Social Anxiety Disorder, one of a number of anxiety disorders that are diagnosed and treated today. Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses in America, affecting approximately 19 million adults (3). Although everyone experiences mild symptoms of anxiety at some point in their lives, those who suffer from an anxiety disorder have chronic and intense bouts of panic. They may fear or dread common social situations such as being out in public with a group of friends (4), or experience full-blown panic attacks (5) that make it impossible to go grocery shopping or to get to work in the morning. If untreated, anxiety disorders can severely impact the quality of one's life, and symptoms may grow even worse over time. There are several types of anxiety disorders, including Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disor... ...c internet resource http://www.algy.com/anxiety/files/barlow.html 6)Serotonin, from Department of Psychology, California State University http://www.csuchico.edu/psy/BioPsych/serotonin.html 7)"The Physiology of Panic Disorder, Part II", from Panic/Anxiety Disorders on about.com http://panicdisorder.about.com/health/panicdisorder/library/weekly/aa043097.htm 8)"Drug May Help in Rx, Education of Panic Disorder", from The Medical Post, January 29, 1996, found on Internet Mental Health http://www.mentalhealth.com/mag1/p5m-pan1.html 9)Paxil, from SmithKline Beecham http://www.paxil.com/ Other Resources 1)The Neurobiology of Childhood Emotion: Anxiety, from The American Psychoanalyst, Vol. 32, No. 2 http://www.apsa.org/tap/anxiety.htm 2)The Neurobiology of Depression, from Scientific American, June 1998 http://www.sciam.com/missing.cfm The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation Essa The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation When I first began my research for this paper, I was primarily interested in learning more about the role of serotonin in the treatment of anxiety disorders. While I did discover that serotonin is important, especially when it comes to understanding the latest drugs being prescribed by doctors to combat anxiety symptoms, I also learned that researchers are pursuing a number of other "leads" in investigating the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. There has been evidence suggesting that a particular gene, or genes, may be associated with the development of anxiety disorders (1). In addition, the circuitry of the amygdala, an area of the brain that regulates fear responses, is now being studied (2). First, I will briefly summarize my findings regarding serotonin, and then I will offer my own personal reaction. I will focus my response around Social Anxiety Disorder, one of a number of anxiety disorders that are diagnosed and treated today. Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses in America, affecting approximately 19 million adults (3). Although everyone experiences mild symptoms of anxiety at some point in their lives, those who suffer from an anxiety disorder have chronic and intense bouts of panic. They may fear or dread common social situations such as being out in public with a group of friends (4), or experience full-blown panic attacks (5) that make it impossible to go grocery shopping or to get to work in the morning. If untreated, anxiety disorders can severely impact the quality of one's life, and symptoms may grow even worse over time. There are several types of anxiety disorders, including Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disor... ...c internet resource http://www.algy.com/anxiety/files/barlow.html 6)Serotonin, from Department of Psychology, California State University http://www.csuchico.edu/psy/BioPsych/serotonin.html 7)"The Physiology of Panic Disorder, Part II", from Panic/Anxiety Disorders on about.com http://panicdisorder.about.com/health/panicdisorder/library/weekly/aa043097.htm 8)"Drug May Help in Rx, Education of Panic Disorder", from The Medical Post, January 29, 1996, found on Internet Mental Health http://www.mentalhealth.com/mag1/p5m-pan1.html 9)Paxil, from SmithKline Beecham http://www.paxil.com/ Other Resources 1)The Neurobiology of Childhood Emotion: Anxiety, from The American Psychoanalyst, Vol. 32, No. 2 http://www.apsa.org/tap/anxiety.htm 2)The Neurobiology of Depression, from Scientific American, June 1998 http://www.sciam.com/missing.cfm

greek heros Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are often a number of characteristics that can be used to describe characters through out literature. The classic mythological hero may be described as having the tragic Greek heroic personality. The tragic Greek heroic personality contains characteristics such as excellence (arà ªte), pride (hubris), blind recklessness (ate), and disastrous retribution (nemesis). Though most mythological heroes contain these qualities, Sophocles developed his own heroic personality. The sophoclean tragic hero is â€Å"one whose rigid and courageous loyalty to particular principles invites a disastrous fate† (Antigone Pg.14). Creon acting a classical tragic as well as Antigone, a sophoclean tragic heroes, both personify their personalities through their actions.   Ã‚  ...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

5 minute speech on a famous person: Bill Gates Essay

Who would like to make $250? What about $250 an hour or $250 a minute? How about $250 a second? How would you like to buy a product for $50,000 and then later sell it for millions? Do you know anyone who has done this? I do. His name is Bill Gates. Who is Bill Gates? Through his programming skills, competitive business practices, and ability to spot innovative products, Bill Gates has been the richest person in the world for the last 12 years. Bill Gates’ success would not be possible without his programming genius. Back when computers were a luxury, Bill Gates was already discovering the mysteries of programming on his high school’s only computer. Later, he was accepted to Harvard University in computer science, but after two years, he left to start his company Microsoft. With his knowledge of programming Bill began making a profit by selling his programs to computer manufacturing companies. He was already making enough money to expand his company to the hundreds. But it was not Gates genius alone that made him become the richest person today. Gates was a good business man and had the ability to spot the next upcoming products. When IBM, the computer industry leader, asked Microsoft to help develop an operating system for its computer, Bill acted quickly. He search around and was able to buy an operating system called DOS for $50,000. Gates then talked IBM into letting Microsoft retain the rights, to market MS DOS separate from IBM. Because of this, Microsoft was able to license its product to all of IBM’s competitors and it made millions. Gates also bought Xerox’s idea of a mouse and made even more millions. But Gate’s ability to spot upcoming would be useless without his competitive business practices. Bill Gate’s a great business man who knows how to create a PC market in his favor. With the release of DOS, it made Microsoft the standard for operation systems. Gates then released Windows, an almost identical copy of Apples graphic operation system, which helped him make his billions. Gates eliminated all other programming competition by including programs such as Microsoft word, excel, PowerPoint, publisher, and internet explorer in windows. Not only that, but he also bought hotmail and WebTV, which are not called msn hotmail and msnTV. In conclusion, Bill Gates was not born rich. With his programming skills, competitive business practices, and ability to spot innovative products, Bill Gates has been the richest person in the world for twelve years straight.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

History of Pakistan 1912 to Date Essay

1206-1526 The Delhi SultanateSome of the earliest relics of St nonpareil Age manhood were nominate in the Soan valley skinny Rawalpindi, dating back to at l easternerly 50,000 eld. predominantly an agricultural domain, its inhabitants learned to tame and maintain animals and cultivate crops any(prenominal) 9,000 years ago. domain villages dating from 6000 BC have been excavated in Baluchistan, the North West Frontier responsibleness and Punjab. The Indus Valley culture is driveed to have evolved some 2600 BC. Built on the ruins of fortified t bears near Kot Diji, it is now commitd to have emerged from far-offming communities of the area. The Civilization boasted immense cities like Moenjodaro and Harappa. These towns were well imagened, with coat main roads, multistoried houses, watchtowers, food warehouses, and fable halls. Their mickle developed an derived record that s process remains un-deciphered. The Indus Civilizations come down approximately 1700 BC i s attri barelyed to remote invaders, who at some sites violently undo the cities. But with recent research, historians have ferment unsure as to the exact causes of decline of the Indus Civilization.Aryans, who were rough cattle breeders, came from primal Asia just about 1700 BC, see nance grazing land for their herds. Their godliness was well developed, with gods identified from elements of nature. They followed a inexorable caste system, which later became Hindooism. They wrote the first admit of Hindoo scripture, the Rig Veda, which was a entreaty of hymns remembered through several generations. Some anthropologists believe that there is no real historical evidence to prove the coming of Aryans, and consider their coming as a myth. In sixth century BC, the people of the region were getting increasingly dissatisfied with the Hindi caste system. When Buddha, news of a Kshatriya world-beater preached equality in men, his teachings were quickly trustworthy throughout the joinern partitioning of the Sub-continent. approximately the same time Gandhara, being the easternmost province of the Achaemenid pudding st ace of Persia, became a major precedent in the region. Its two cities Pushkalavati, or present day Charsadda near Peshawar, and the uppercase Taxila, were the center of civilization and culture.horse parsley the majuscule invaded the Subcontinent in 327 BC. Conquering the Kalash valley, he pass over the decently Indus at Ohind, sixteen miles northwest of Attock. He then defeated the mighty elephant army of Porus at Jhelum, and began his march towards the desire Ganges plain. However, he was forced to plan for homeward sailing when his warwary troops refused to advance further. On his way back, a sober wound, received while battling the Malloi people at Multan, finally took its toll, and Alexander died in 323 BC, going his conquests for grab among his own officers. Chandragupta Maurya was an exiled member of the royal stag fa mily of Magadha, a kingdom flourishing since 700 BC on the bank of river Ganges. subsequently Alexanders oddment, Chandragupta captured Punjab with his allies, and later overthrew the king of Magadha in 321 BC to form the Mauryan Empire. After twenty-four years of kingship, his give-and-take, Bindusara, who added Deccan to the Mauryan incur, succeeded Chandragupta. Ashoka, give-and-take of Bindusara, was wholeness of the superlative regulations the world has ever cognise. Not whole did he encounter a spacious empire he also essay to rein in it compassionately. After initially cause thousands of lives during his conquest of Kalinga, he decided to shape by the law of piety.He was submissive in spreading Buddhism within and out of doors the Sub-continent by building Buddhist monasteries and stupas, and direct out missionaries to fo prevail lands. The Greek king of Bactria, Demetrius, conquered the Kabul River Valley around 195 BC. The Greeks re- build Taxila and Pushk alavati as their t reach capital cities in Gandhara. They were followed in 75 BC by the Scythians, Iranian nomads from primal Asia, and in about 50 BC by the powerful Parthians, from east of the Caspian Sea.After defeating the Greeks in 53 BC, the Parthians control the northern Pakistan area. During their era of trade and economical prosperity, the Parthians promoted art and religion. The Gandhara naturalise of art developed, which reflected the reputation of Greek, Syrian, Persian and Indian art traditions. The Kushana king, Kujula, ruler of nomad tribes from Central Asia, overthrew the Parthians in 64 AD and took over Gandhara. The Kushans further increase their rule into northwest India and Bay of Bengal, south into Bahawalpur and suddenly of Gujrat, and north till Kashghar and Yarkand, into the Chinese frontier.They make their winter capital at Purushapura, the metropolis of Flowers, now called Peshawar, and their summer capital north of Kabul. Kanishka, the greatest of K ushans, command from the year 128 to 151. stack flourished during his rule, with the Romans trading in g gray for jewelry, perfumes, dyes, spices and textiles. get on was make in medicine and literature. Thousands of Buddhist monasteries and stupas were built and the best pieces of sculpture in the Gandhara School of art were produced. He was killed in his sleep when his own people resisted his unfailing expansionist pursuits.The Kushans Empire was usurped both from the North, where the Sassanian Empire of Persia eroded their rule. and the southward where the Gupta Empire took hold. In the fourth century, due to decline in prosperity and trade, the Kushans Empire was reduced to a new dynasty of Kidar (Little) Kushans, with the capital now at Peshawar. Coming from Central Asia, the White Huns, in the beginning the horse-riding nomads from China, invaded Gandhara during the fifth century. With declining prosperity, and the sun and fireworshipping Huns ruling the land, Buddhism s tepwise disappeared from northern Pakistan, taking the glory of the Gandhara School of art with it.After the defeat of Huns by Sassanians and Turks in 565, the area was mostly left over(p) to be ruled by excellent Hindu kingdoms, with the Turki Shahi rulers controlling the area till Gandhara from Afghanistan, and the raja of Kashmir ruling northern Punjab, and the areas east of the Indus. Buddhisms decline continued as more people were converted to brahman Hindus. Overthrowing the Turki Shahis, the Central Asian Hindu Shahis ruled from 870 till the year 1008. With their capital launch at Hund on the Indus, their rule extended from Jalalabad in Afghanistan to Multan, and covered as far north as Kashmir.Fasting Buddha from Gandhara region, Central Museum, LahoreBuddha in Dhyana Mudra preserved in Julian monasterySlave Dynasty 1206-1290Khalji Dynasty 1290-1320The founder of the Khalji Dynasty in South Asia, Malik Firuz, was originally the Ariz-iMumalik appointed by Kaiqubad during the ache time of decline of the Slave Dynasty. He took improvement of the political vacuum that was created due to the incompetency of the successors of Balban. To occupy the stool, he only had to shift the infant Sultan Kaimurs. On June 13 1290, Malik Firuz ascended the sewer of Delhi as Jalal-ud-din Firuz Shah. Khaljis were basically Central Asians tho had lived in Afghanistan for so yearn that they had become different from the Turks in footing of customs and manners. Thus the coming of Khaljis to power was more than a dynastic change. As majority of the Muslim population of Delhi was Turk, the comer of a Khalji ruler was not a lot welcomed.Yet Jalal-ud-din managed to win the hearts of the people through his mildness and generosity. He retain most of the officers holding key positions in the Slave Dynasty. His own nephew and son-in-law Alauddin Khalji, killed Jalal-ud-din and took over as the new ruler. Alauddins reign is attach by innovative administrative and reve nue enhancement reforms, market control regulations and a whirlwind diaphragm of conquests. It is considered the golden menses of the Khalji rule. However, before the death of Alauddin, his house was divided into two camps.This resulted in the ultimate collapse of the Khalji dynasty. On one side were Khizar khan (Alauddins son and the nominated hair to the green goddess), Alp caravan inn (Khizars father in law and the governor of Gujrat) and Malika-i-Jehan (wife of Alauddin and sister of Alp Khan). Malik Kafur led the new(prenominal) camp, who was one of Alauddins most trusted nobles. Malik Kafur managed to win the combat of politics and succeeded in making Shahab-ud-din Umar, a young prince of six years old, as the successor of Alauddin and himself became his regent. However, later his own agents killed Malik Kafur.After the death of Malik Kafur, Qutb-ud-din Mubarik Shah, another son of Alauddin removed his younger brother Umar from the throne and became Sultan in 1316. Mub arik was a profitless ruler and most of his time was discharge in drinking and womanizing. During his rule the power was actually in the hands of a lowborn Hindu slave, who was given the agnomen of Khusraw Khan by Mubarik himself. Khusraw, with the help of some of his friends killed Mubarik and state himself the Sultan. With this the rule of the Khalji Dynasty came to an end.Tomb and College of Alauddin Khalji, although the corpulent is now missingThe incomplete Alai Minar, built by Alauddin KhaljiTughluq Dynasty 1320-1412During his rule, Khusraw replaced Muslim officers by Hindu officers in all key positions of the country. These Hindu officers openly insulted Islam, dishonored mosques and used copies of the volume as pedestals for idols. This bureau was very challenging for the Muslim of South Asia to digest. They gathered around a Tughluq noble popularly cognize as Ghazi Malik, who defeated and killed Khusraw. He treasured to give power back to the Khalji Dynasty, but c ould not find any survivor amongst the decedents of Alauddin. In this situation, the nobles asked him to become Sultan. He ascended the throne on September 8, 1320, and assumed the patronage of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah, thus becoming the founder of the Tughluq dynasty. The Tughluqs belonged to the Qarauna Turk tribe.After becoming Sultan, Ghiyas-ud-din concentrated on inhibition the Hindu rajas, who had gained power during the short rule of Khusraw. He conquered Bengal, which was no longer part of the central empire since the death of Balban. When he came back after the successful Bengal expedition, his son Jauna Khan gave him a very unassailable welcome. When Ghiyas-ud-din was taking the guard-of-honor, the special stage that had been constructed for the matter fell down, killing Ghiyas-ud-din and six other people. His son Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded him. Muhammad Tughluq was a man of ideas. He tried to implement a number of his own schemes.Unfortunately for him, almost a ll his schemes failed and he became unpopular amongst the masses. When he died, his cousin, Firuz Shah was raised to the status of Sultan. Firuz Shahs long rule of 37 years is know for his marvelous administrative reforms. Due to old age, Firuz Shah handed over power to his son Muhammad Shah during his lifetime. The new Sultan proved cumbersome and was not liked by the nobles. A civil war like situation was created. Firuz Shah helped in cooling down the accent and replaced Muhammad Shah with Ghiyas-ud-din, his grandson, as Sultan.However, after the death of Firuz Shah in 1388, a tussle once once again began between the power-hungry princes of the house of Tughluqs. The nobles, who in point to gain more power, started supporting one prince or the other, further worsened the situation. This period of fighting amongst the Tughluq princes continued for about run of a century. Amir Timurs assault on Delhi in 1398 further undo the political and economic standing of the Tughluqs. The dynasty lastly came to an end in 1414 when Khizar Khan founded the Saiyid Dynasty in Delhi.Saiyid Dynasty 1414-1451Saiyids Dynasty, claimed to be a descendent of the seer of Islam, Hadrat Muhammad (S. A. W.). Thus his naturalized rule is known as the Saiyids Dynasty. Khizar collaborated with Timur during his invasion on India. As a reward, on his departure from the area, Timur made Khizar the governor of Lahore, Multan and Dipalpur. When Mahmud Shah, the last of the Tughlaq rulers, died in 1412, Daullat Khan Lodhi and Khizar both attempted to occupy the throne of Delhi. Tomb of Muhammad Shah Saiyid In 1414, Khizar won the battle and established the rule of his dynasty in Delhi. Although Khizar Khan was completely sovereign, he preferred to rule in the name of Timur, and then in the name of Timurs successor, Shah Rukh.As a result of Timurs invasion and the regular wars for succession among the successors of Firuz Shah, a number of states and provinces of the Sultanate of Delhi s tate their independence. Khizar tried to reintegrate these states through force, but failed in his mission. During his rule, the Sultanate was reduced to Sindh, western sandwich Punjab, and Western Uttar Pradesh. Khizar died a natural death on May 20, 1421. His son Mubarik Shah succeeded Khizar. Unlike his father, Mubarik declared himself Sultan.His rule was full of internal and foreign revolts. On February 19 1434, two accomplices of his wazir, Sarwa-ul-Mulk, killed him. The reign of his successors, his nephew Muhammad Shah and Muhammads son Alauddin Alam Shah, were also attach by political instability. The territories of their empires were reduced to a distance of ten miles from Delhi to Palam. Finally, Buhlul Lodhi occupied Delhi and established his rule. Thus the era of Saiyids Dynasty came to an end in 1451.