Monday, September 30, 2019

Family Counsel Approach Essay

Within White’s therapy, the therapist adopts a position of consultant to those experiencing oppression at a personal level from their problems and at a political level from a mental-health discourse and set of practices which permeate western culture. Thus people with problems of living are viewed as requiring help in fighting back against these problems and practices which have invaded their lives. This positioning is described by White, drawing on ideas from the French philosopher Derrida (1981), as both deconstructionist and constitutionalist. A deconstructionist position entails empowering clients to subvert taken-for-granted mental-health definitions and practices. A constitutionalist position entails working from the premise that lives and identities are constituted and shaped by three sets of factors: †¢ The meaning people give to their experiences or the stories they tell themselves about themselves. †¢ The language practices that people are recruited into along with the type of words these use to story their lives. †¢ The situation people occupy in social structures in which they participate and the power relations entailed by these. The positioning of the clinician within narrative therapy involves addressing these three sets of factors by deconstructing the sense people make of their lives, the language practices they use, and the power relationships in which they find themselves. In deconstructing practices of power, White draws on the work of the French philosopher Foucault (1965, 1975, 1979, 1980, 1984). People are unconsciously recruited into the subjugation of their own lives by power practices that involve continual isolation, evaluation, and comparison. Eventually our clients internalize ludicrous societal standards, yet believe that in doing so they are justifiably aspiring to valued ideals of fulfillment and excellence. This leads, for example, to self starvation and anorexia, extreme self-criticism in depression, or a sense of powerlessness in the face of threat and anxiety. In turn, mental health professions have compounded this problem by developing global unitary accounts of these states that purport to be objective truths, such as the diagnostic categories contained in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (World Health Organization, 1992). Furthermore, these professions support practices that prevent clients from questioning the socio-political contexts within which these so-called objective diagnostic truths emerged. The collaborative co-authoring position central to narrative practice is neither a one-up expert position nor a one-down strategic position. At a 1997 workshop White showed a clip of videotape in which he used turn taking at questioning to help a young girl with a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder to participate in an interview. Other professionals involved in the case had been unable to help the girl to do this and had labeled her as uncooperative. White made an agreement with her early in the meeting that for every question she answered, she could ask him a question. The girl stuck to this bargain because she was very curious about his perception of the world, since he told her at the outset of the meeting that he was color blind. This collaborative approach was highly effective in helping the girl tell her story about her difficulties in managing friendships and school work. Within White’s language in therapy there is an openness about the therapist’s working context, intentions, values, and biases. There is a privileging of the client’s language rather than the therapist’s language. There is a respect for working at the client’s pace that finds expression in regularly summarizing and checking that the client is comfortable with the pace. The therapist assumes that since social realities are constituted through language and organized through narratives, all therapeutic conversations aim to explore multiple constructions of reality rather than tracking down the facts which constitute a single truth. There is no room for questions like: †¢ From an objective viewpoint, what happened? All inquires are about individual viewpoints. †¢ How did you see the situation? †¢ How did your view differ from that of your mother/father/ brother/sister/etc? There is a constant vigilance for marginalized stories that might offer an opening for the person to engage in what White (1989, 1995) refers to as an â€Å"insurrection of subjugated knowledges.† That is, an opening that will allow the person to select to construct the story of their lives in terms other than those dictated by the dominant narrative which feeds their problem. This requires the therapist to privilege listening over questioning, and to question in a way that helps clients to see that the stories of their lives are actively constructed, rather than passively recounted and given. EXTERNALIZING THE PROBLEM Externalizing the problem is the central in counseling and supervision used by Michael White to help clients begin to define their problems as separate from their identities. A particular style of questioning is used to help clients begin to view their problems as separate from themselves. Central to this style of questioning is inquiring about how the problem has been affecting the person’s life and relationships. Of a young boy with persistent soiling problems Michael White asked the boy and his parents a series of questions about Mr. Mischief, an externalized personification of the soiling problem: †¢ Are you happy what Mr. Mischief is doing to your relationship? †¢ How is Mr. Mischief interfering with your friendships? Of a girl with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa he asked: †¢ How far has anorexia nervosa encroached on your life? †¢ How did anorexia nervosa come to oppress you in this way? With people diagnosed as psychotic and experiencing auditory hallucinations he asked: †¢ What are the voices trying to talk you into? †¢ How will their wishes affect your life? In a health education project which aimed to prevent the spread of aids, AIDS was personified and participants in the project were asked: Where will AIDS be found? †¢ How will AIDS be recognized? This procedure of asking questions in a way that assumes the problem and the person are quite separate helps clients to begin to externalize the problem and to internalize personal agency (Carr,1997). It may also interrupt the habitual enactment of the dominant problem-saturated story of the person’s identity. In relative influence questioning the client is invited to first map out the influence of the problem on their lives and relationships, and second to map out the influence that they exert on the problem. Relative influence questioning allows clients to think of themselves not as problem-people but as individuals who have a relationship with a problem. Here are some examples of relative influence questions: †¢ In that situation were you stronger than the problem or was the problem stronger than you? †¢ Who was in charge of your relationships then? Were you in charge or was the problem in charge? †¢ To what extent were you controlling your life at that point and to what extent was the problem controlling your life? This type of questioning also opens up the possibility that clients may report that on some occasions the problem influences them to the point of oppression, whereas on others, they can resist the problem. Thus relative influence questions allow clients to construct unique outcomes which are the seeds from which lives may be re-authored. When it is clear that in some situations problems have a greater influence than people, whereas in other instances people win out, questions may be asked about clients’ views of contextual influences on this. Here are some examples of such questions: †¢ What feeds the problem? †¢ What starves the problem? †¢ Who is for the problem? †¢ Who is against the problem?

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Ketone Reduction Using Sodium Borohydride

Experiment 5B: Ketone Reduction Objective: Using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent, the ketone 4-tert-butylcyclohexane is reduced to its corresponding alcohol. It is purified through extraction techniques to give the cis and trans diasteromer products. Procedure: The procedure was followed as outlined in Mayo’s book for Experiment 5B with the following modifications: 1. Reagents and Equipment – The reaction will be on a scale of 2X what is described in the text. 2. Reagents and Equipment – The progress of the reaction will be followed by TLC as directed in the Reaction Conditions section.Glass backed TLC plates will be created with the following three spots: Ketone Standard/Co-Spot/Crude Reaction Mixture. Prepare the TLC plate while the reaction is being set up. To the initial solution of 4-tert-butylcyclohexane in methanol, before adding the reducing solution, insert a TLC capillary. Use this sample as your ketone standard. Do NOT stop the reaction before c hecking the progress by TLC. If the reaction is not complete, add another portion of the reducing solution. 3. Isolation of Product – All other amounts specified in this section should be followed without doubling. . Isolation of Product – Substitute 1. 0 mL of cold 3. 0 M HCl for 1. 0 mL of cold 0. 1 M HCl. 5. Purification and Characterization – Will not obtain an NMR spectrum. Reaction Scheme: Data and Results: CompoundMW (g/mol)AmountMmolMp (degrees C)Bp (degrees C) 4-tert-butylcylcohexane154. 25103 mg0. 6747 – 50 Methanol32. 04100  µL65 Sodium Borohydride reducing solution37. 83200  µL *NOTE: As I was condensing my product in the sand bath it â€Å"popped† and there was no more final product in my vial. Therefore I was not able to do a final analysis and I am using Mike Mariani’s data in my report.Observations: 1. Crude product was solid and white in color. 2. TLC spots were dark purple for both the ketone standard and co-spot. The s pot for the crude reaction mixture was barely visible. 3. Melting point of product started at 62. 5 degrees Celsius. Calculations: 1. TLC was done in an elution solvent system of ethyl acetate: hexane (1:4). QQ did not have us record Rf values. The color of the spots was as indicated in the observations section above. 2. Yield of Crude Product = Vial and product – Vial: 4. 233 g – 4. 141 = 0. 092 g = 92 mg 3. Percent Yield of Crude Product:

Saturday, September 28, 2019

History of Western Society Essay

Histories of ancient civilizations, namely those of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Greece—covering both the Hellas and the Hellenistic periods, reveal that religion and philosophy were invariably tied to the kind of geography where these civilizations have been founded. Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations, prospering mainly because of nearby large water tributaries, took a different path in their development than that taken by the Greeks. While the former took advantage of rivers to centralize tribes and villages, and therefore fashioned the brand of religious ideologies and philosophy to unify the peoples, the latter leaned more towards philosophy to bring different cultures together. In addition, unlike the religions of Mesopotamia and Egypt, the Greeks had to strike a balance among a variety of gods and idols. As such, Greek mythology was a result of combining gods of individual tribes into one literature so that each tribe had its own representative in a belief system shared universally in every city-state (McKay, 2002). Mesopotamia lies between two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. It has been home to one of the earliest and most influential civilizations in history. At around 3000 B. C. , small villages and tribes founded a number of cities which grew and combined later to form the large Sumerian society and thus made Mesopotamia the â€Å"cradle of civilization† (McKay, 2002). Precisely because of these two great rivers, commerce and free exchange of ideas and goods were possible. Its geographical advantages allowed the civilization to thrive as a distinct society for the longest time. Early forms of pictograph writing enabled its citizens to develop crude educational institutions, literature, religion, mathematics and philosophy. Sumerian cuneiform, as it is commonly referred to, evolved from such pictographic system to â€Å"an ideogram system and then later, a phonetic system† (McKay, 2002). Likewise, scribal schools used writing to preserve and cultivate thought, and as such, became centers for learning and culture. In terms of religious ideology and thought, Sumerian civilization believed in spirits and created a mythological system to explain natural events. Later, religion was incorporated in its laws to govern the actions of men. They also employed myths to describe how the universe began (McKay, 2002). For instant, the ancient epic of Gilgamesh was used to explain the origins and mystical history of Earth. Sumerian civilization had developed a field in mathematics as a practical tool for construction and free market as well (McKay, 2002). On the same note, Egyptian civilization flourished because it was situated near the Nile which had a significant impact on Egyptian life, society and history (McKay, 2002). Egypt subsisted and prospered agriculturally from the seasonal flooding of the river (McKay, 2002). They had little need for irrigation since they only had to time crop rotation to fall within the fertile seasons of the land. Other than the agricultural benefits that Egypt derives from the Nile, it has also benefited from the fact that the river spanned the whole extent of the land thereby making it easier to unify the entire citizenry under one rule. In other words, the Nile became the super nautical highway of business, politics and culture (McKay, 2002). Consequently, inasmuch as the problem of distance was immediately solved by the presence of the great river, the kings or â€Å"Pharaohs† were able to bring together different tribes in Egypt under one leadership (McKay, 2002). This political and cultural unification paved the way for the establishment of the old kingdom of Egypt at around which time the land was bountiful and prosperous (McKay 2002). The kingdom of Egypt heavily relied on the seasons for their harvest. This explains the reason why the civilization had learned to use mathematics to predict the seasons. Likewise, they developed means to map out the stars in order to understand changes in the season. They also studied geometry and construction to be able build storehouses to hold the fruits of their harvest as well as religious monuments to appease the Gods to give them a good year for harvest (McKay 2002). However, in contrast to the geographical advantage enjoyed by Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations, Greeks and the Hellenistic civilization, which came later, had little patches of fertile and arable lands suitable for agriculture (McKay, 2002). Chains of mountains isolated the tribes which came down from northern parts of Europe to settle down (McKay, 2002). Unification of different city-states was a big challenge to overcome. Consequently, the city-states were either constantly at war with each other to unite the land or politicians, orators and philosophers took the charge of solidifying the Greek culture by means of a painstakingly gradual amalgamation of the tribes through education and thought (McKay, 2002). At any rate, the Greeks and the Hellenistic civilizations learned how to navigate the seas as an alternate route to reach other city-states and trade with their neighboring nations. Religion and philosophy, examined under closer scrutiny, describe the spread of a particular culture among civilizations where its tenets are compatible. The spread of Christianity, for instance, had been more successful in late Rome than it had been in other places. Notwithstanding the perilous routes early Christians had to traverse to reach Egypt and Mesopotamia, Christianity merged with Hellenistic culture much faster than any other nation (McKay, 2002). Hellenistic civilization welcomed Christianity as a change in their belief system simply because the extant mythological ideologies at this time were more divisive than they were helpful. Going back to the thesis that Greeks had to have several representative gods from different states, the motley Greek mythology no longer suited its political and social purpose when Rome was on the verge of collapse (McKay, 2002). The religion and philosophy of Egypt and Mesopotamia were firmly established as a way of life among its peoples, quite in contrast with the Greeks, where both were used to diffuse several ideas in one body of literature as a flimsy unifying factor. In other words, religion and philosophy for Egyptians and Sumerians were easily identifiable to a single ruling power in the kingdom, while these same ideologies are jointly and severally diffused in the consciousness of the Greeks (McKay, 2002). References McKay, J. , Hill, B. D. , & Buckler, J. (2002). A history of western society (7th ed. ). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Southwest Airline Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Southwest Airline - Research Paper Example According to Kelly (2008), Southwest Airlines has a code of ethics that is targeted to regulate the way people interact and respond to the different things they encounter in their delivery of services. The code of ethics in the company ensures that the employees develop a culture of responsible service delivery to all their clients. This culture is supposed to ensure that they have developed a code that requires all its employees comply with the law, rules, and regulations that determine when, where and how the action will take place and determine who is to guide the performance of the activity. The code of ethics allows that all the employees should respond to international and local clients according to the orders that are set out by the organizational management to ensure that they are able to deliver services without partiality. Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) seriously deals with aspects of corruption in the company in the company as notes Berger (2011). According to the Southw est Airlines’ code of ethics, there are issues no employees of the company is allowed to make any unwarranted payment to any government official from within the country or even from other places in the world. This code is made to ensure that all acts of corruption are prevented and this is an evidence of the company’s commitment to the delivery of services at a fair competition level. This means that Southwest Airlines Company does not feel threatened by other companies that offer similar services in the market.... that they have developed a code that requires all its employees comply with the law, rules and regulations that determine when, where and how action will take place and determine who is to guide the performance of the activity. The code of ethics allows that all the employees should respond to international and local clients according to the orders that are set out by the organizational management to ensure that they are able to deliver services without partiality. Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) seriously deals with aspects of corruption in the company in the company as notes Berger (2011). According to the Southwest Airlines’ code of ethics, there are issues no employees of the company is allowed to make any unwarranted payment to any government official from within the country or even from other places in the world. This code is made to ensure that all acts of corruption are prevented and this is an evidence of the company’s commitment to the delivery of services at a fair competition level. This means that Southwest Airlines Company is does not feel threatened by other companies that offer similar services in the market. The company has established this code of ethics as a regulation for the members of the society but it has implication on an individual who breaks it because it can amount to a legal offense. This means that the company has a code of ethics that will ensures that it will be able to regulate its internal and external environment (Kelly, 2008). Another ethical issue that form an important aspect of the life of the Southwest Airlines is the aspect that it has a clear stipulation on how it will compete honestly with other companies. For example, they offer the opportunity to customers to change their tickets prior to charging as opposed to other

Thursday, September 26, 2019

About physical therapy Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

About physical therapy - Personal Statement Example My father gave me a simple reply, â€Å"Because they need it.† My father was never a man of many words so I knew that I needed to seek the answer to my question from my cousin. His reply was to set the career path that I would eventually follow. He explained to me that the people in the clinic had all been physically injured either by playing sports, a work accident, or just a stroke of bad luck. Their injury damaged their body physically so they could not move like a normal person would. Pointing out the others who had their arms in slings or casts, and some people with amputated arms, he told me that â€Å"They all need help in learning how to move like a normal person. That is what I help them with.† Since we had time to spare before having to leave, I intently watched my cousin do his job. Trying to understand what exactly it was that he was trying to do for these people. When I asked him what he called what he was doing to them, he responded â€Å"Physical therapy†. I told myself that I would remember those two words because I wanted to be like my cousin when I grew up. So while I spent my time being a voracious reader, I made sure to read as many books as i could about the foundation of a physical therapists career aside from many other book genres that I liked to read. I made sure to spend as much free time as I could throughout my high school years observing my cousin in his workplace. Learning as much as I could and asking as many questions that I could about what he was doing to the patients. I will always be grateful to him for never tiring of answering the thousand and one questions that I kept asking him. I became such a regular fixture at his clinic that even the patients already knew me by name and some even considered me a friend already. When I was not observing at the physical therapy clinic, I spent whatever time I could doing volunteer work for the needy and less fortunate in my city. One of the places that I volunteered at

A Moral Program for Myself as a Person and as a Professional Essay

A Moral Program for Myself as a Person and as a Professional - Essay Example Nevertheless, in order to attain this betterment, I need to come up with a moral program for my personal and professional lives. Whether it is applying the ethical principles of Aristotle, Kant and Mill, or combating moral illiteracy within my department, I plan to use my newfound information to its greatest potential. Therefore, this article first elucidates on the moral program that I would implement in my professional life as a nurse. Consequently, the second part is on a program fitted for my personal life as a single mother to a four-year-old child. Out of all the philosophers that we studied during the course, Aristotles virtue ethics is the most suitable theory for my profession. According to Solomon (1992), Aristotle believed that â€Å"virtuous acts required conscious choice and moral purpose or motivation† (p. 321). In this regard, this is the most crucial aspect that I must exemplify in my professional life as a nurse. Furthermore, the six dimensions of virtue ethics are community, excellence, role identity, holism, integrity and judgment are crucial for an exemplary career as a nurse. According to Solomon (1992), Aristotles virtue ethics has its foundation â€Å"upon the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior† (p. 326). As registered nurses, we have a code of ethics, which are similar to Aristotles virtue ethics. From a general point of view, the nursing code of ethics calls for a nurse to practice with sympathy and reverence for the natural dignity, value and distinctiveness of every human being (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2011, p. 3). In this regard, I need to engage Aristotle’s virtue ethics as a nurse in order to practice compassion and respect my patients. In addition, ANA (2011) notes that the second provision in this code of ethics provides that â€Å"the nurse’s primary commitment is to the patient, and not to the company or hospital,

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Industral ergonomics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Industral ergonomics - Essay Example The present study focuses on an ergonomic critical analysis of a health hazard evaluation report. The report that has been selected for the study is Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HETA-99-0283-2855, Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The evaluation of the Yellowstone National Park had been considered on the concerns arising from the riding snowmobiles to patrol roads and maintenance of the park that was known to cause injuries and pains in the muscles of those individuals who worked in the park. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was in charge of the evaluation of the health hazards in the area and they worked on determining whether the park workers had problems with the work and whether the work was causing health hazards to them. Also, there were measures on the part of the managers and the employees that had been suggested by the NIOSH in this regard (NIOSH HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATION REPORT, 2001, p. 3). The ergonomic evaluation of the case involved determination of the health hazards that could be associated with such park works. These included overexertion injuries and musculoskeletal disorders that may lead to pain in the lower back, tendinitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. These symptoms are possible and need evaluation in this case that involved repetitive, stereotyped movement of the body joints, vigorous physical exertions, lifting, uncomfortable or fixed postures during work postures, nonstop pressure on nerves and soft tissues, working in uncomfortable environments like in the cold weather, whole body being exposed or segmental vibration. The evaluation included these ergonomic issues and conducted tests to determine the effects of the work on the workers (NIOSH HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATION REPORT, 2001, p. 5). The evaluation method included measurements of dimensions and adjustability ranges of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 23

Assignment Example spondents’ own categories of meaning, the method is useful for studying a limited number of cases in depth, the method can be used to study complex phenomena, it provides individual case information, provides emic viewpoints, among other strengths. The weaknesses include the fact that knowledge generated might not generalize to other people or settings, it is not easy to make quantitative predictions, it is more difficult to test hypotheses and theories with large participant pools, it might have lower credibility with some commissioners of programs, the data analysis is time consuming, and the results are more easily influenced by the researcher’s personal biases and idiosyncrasies. 2. In the article by Estruch et al., what was the study design? How were the three essential requirements for this type of design fulfilled in this study? Did the research topic and question â€Å"match† the study design? Please explain your reasons for your answer. (7 points) This was a quantitative research and more specifically an experimental design. Experimental designs must meet the following essential requirements: randomization, control, and manipulation. Randomization was met by assigning participants in a 1:1:1 ratio to one of the three groups by means of a computer-generated random-number sequence. Control was met by including a control group in the experiment – the group that received dietary training. Manipulation was met by offering Mediterranean-diet with different supplements to the two experiment groups. Indeed the topic, the question, and the design matched. The observational cohort studies and secondary prevention trial had shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. The design was therefore appropriate to find out the same. 3. In the article by Ito and Sharts-Hopko, what indicates that the investigators were attentive to the rights of human subjects? Is there anything about the article that causes

Monday, September 23, 2019

Corruption in the Corrections System Research Paper

Corruption in the Corrections System - Research Paper Example In my study, I came up with the best solutions to minimize corruption in these units and include punishing the vote brokers and vote sellers during the judicial voting and annual assessment of the public officials. Others include; conducting regular surprise examination for all the correction system officers, a timely governmental audit by COA or an independent audit firm, strict regulations of the entire correctional system and demolishment of private prisons. A correctional system, sometimes referred to as panel system, is a connection between different agencies with the prime role of providing a jurisdiction’s prison as well as other community-based initiatives such as parole and probation boards. A correctional system forms a major crucial and important part of the macro criminal justice system, which to extent includes other processes of policing, making prosecutions and the general court system. There are some forms as well as types of this system including; Power Factor Correction Systems, Community Correction Information Systems, AccuSine Power Correction System and the Trajectory Correction System, among others. All these different types of correctional system have the same objectives, goals, and aims, which make them, stay focused towards the achievement of the best standards of providing jurisdiction’s prison to the public. However, corruption has diminished the quality of service provision by these systems, leadin g to partial failure on some of them towards the realization of their mission statements. In this research paper, I am going to identify some of the corruptions of this system and discuss the possible tactics that can get used to solving some of these problems. Corruption refers to all the activities leading to abuse of power by the public officers with the prime purpose of private and individual gain. It may also be an organized, independent processes and mechanisms. This is whereby a

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Women of Full Metal Jacket Essay Example for Free

The Women of Full Metal Jacket Essay In Stanley Kubricks Full Metal Jacket, it is difficult to determine the role that women play simply because of the glaring lack of female characters. In total, only three women actually appear in the movie, and two of those are prostitutes; the third isnt revealed as a woman until the final 10 minutes of the film, and none of them are given names. In fact, until the snipers gender is revealed, women only play a role as objects for the soldiers amusement. In all interactions between the genders, it is obvious that the male soldiers always hold complete power over the women, able to bargain their services down to a paltry five dollars per soldier. For one of the prostitutes, a soldier even effectively acts as her pimp, determining whom she services and for how much. In contrast, the role of the female sniper completely flips this gendered scheme of power-relations by using an intermediary, her rifle, to gain power over the male soldiers. For these G.I.s, the idea that women dont exist on the battlefield is hammered into them from boot camp. This process starts when the drill instructor marches into the barracks and instructs his soldiers that they should give their gun a female name and sleep with it at night because it will be the only female company they will receive during their tour of duty. In this manner, the soldiers are directed to receive the same sort of pleasure from killing and battle that they would normally expect from a full relationship with a woman. On a more abstract level, giving the gun a female name also establishes a mindset that women are tools (another name the drill instructor frequently uses to describe the rifle) in order to achieve pleasure for the soldier. In the battlefield, the soldiers subscribe to this philosophy wholeheartedly; taking their gun with them everywhere while leaving their transitory relationships with behind. Similarly, the complete lack of female soldiers in the army se ts up an expectation in their minds that all soldiers are male: all soldiers uses their women to kill. The introduction of the female sniper severely breaks all of these preconceptions for the American soldiers in several ways. First, she is a complete departure from the previous female characters in the film. Rather  than being subservient to the male G.I.s she dominates them, driving them away from an otherwise abandoned city. By using a rifle, she is in fact co-opting the tools of masculine domination that the American forces have relied on. By taking a tool that the men have identified as female, she is using her own femininity against them as a way of reversing the traditional power roles that the soldiers have come to expect. Secondly, her presence and the close proximity in which she is killed provides a more human and softer face than some of the soldiers had previously experienced. Joker in particular seems horrified by the facts of war once he is able to see the female sniper up close after she has been shot down. While some of the other soldiers are in favor of letting her suffer, Joker wants to effectively euthanize her. However, even when he makes the decision to shoot her one final time he has significant difficultly coming to grips with shooting a woman. In this way, the sniper once again demonstrates the power of her gender by forcing Joker, a self-described killer, to hesitate. Thus we can see that by making the sniper a female, Kubrick effectively utilizes her gender as a method of reversing the power roles established early in the movie and continued throughout.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Potassium Lithium Hydrogen Phthalate Mixed Crystals

Potassium Lithium Hydrogen Phthalate Mixed Crystals 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SECTION 3.1 Synthesis, growth, structure and characterization of potassium lithium hydrogen phthalate mixed crystals* In the present work, we report the growth and structure of a new mixed crystal C16H16KLiO11 (PLHP), which crystallizes in a non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and SHG-active. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization studies which are briefly described below. Here it is established that by synthesising the mixed crystal in a different route with a controlled concentration of additive, one can sustain nonlinearity at the macro level by allowing the specimen to crystallise in a polar space group. The main objective of the investigation is to design a noncentrosymmetric structure by attempting a different route of synthesis, leading to NLO activity. Steering to noncentrosymmetry from centrosymmetry is made possible by changing the growth conditions. 3.1.1. Crystal growth The mixed crystal PLHP was synthesized from an aqueous solution containing equimolar quantities of AR grade potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) in slightly acidic conditions using de-ionized water. After successive recrystallization, the mixed crystals were grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The crystallization took place within 20-25 d and the crystals were harvested. Photographs of as- grown crystals are shown in Fig. 3.1.1. Fig. 3.1.1. Photographs of mixed crystal PLHP 3.1.2. FT-IR The FT-IR spectrum of the as-grown specimen is shown in Fig.3.1.2. An absorption band in the region 500-900 cm-1 corresponds to the C-H out of plane deformations of aromatic ring. The C=O stretching frequency appeared at 1670 cm-1. The characteristic vibrational patterns of KHP104, lithium hydrogen phthalate (LiHP) 22 and PLHP are given in Table 3.1.2. A slight shift of some of the characteristic vibrational frequencies could be due to the stress development because of Li incorporation. Fig. 3.1.2. FT–IR spectrum of mixed crystal PLHP Table 3.1.2. FT-IR frequencies of some acid phthalate crystals (cm-1) aRef 105 bRef 22 c Present study 3.1.3. TGA/DTA Thermal studies reveal the purity of the material. The TGA curve shows a single stage weight loss at à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¾150o C due to loss of water molecule. In DTA, the broad endothermic peak at 420 °C, is due to decomposition. The residual mass observed from thermogram at 600 °C is ~50%. (Fig. 3.1.3). 3.1.4. SEM / EDS The SEM micrographs give information about the surface morphology and it is used to check the imperfections105. The SEM pictures of PLHP at different magnifications are shown in Fig. 3.1.4.1. It shows highest surface roughness in a plate like structure, due to defect centers and crystal voids. The presence of Li and K in the PLHP crystal lattice is confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) (Fig. 3.1.4.2). Fig. 3.1.4.2. EDS spectrum of PLHP 3.1.5. AAS and CHN analysis Atomic absorption spectroscopic studies were carried out to quantify Li (20.6 ppm) and K (21. ppm ) in the sample. Also, CHN elemental analysis was performed to estimate the quantity of carbon and hydrogen present in PLHP. The elemental composition found was: C 42.93%, H 3.29%. The calculated composition was: C 44.63%, H 3.7%. 3.1.6. UV-visible The UV-visible spectrum of the mixed crystal PLHP reveals high transmittance in the visible region and the lower cut-off wave length is observed at ~300 nm. Incorporation of foreign metal ion into the KHP crystal lattice does not destroy the optical transmission of potassium hydrogen phthalate. The concentration of an absorbing species can be determined using the Kubelka-Munk equation106 correlating reflectance and concentration, F(R) = (1-R)2 / 2R = ÃŽ ± / s=Ac / s where F(R) is Kubelka-Munk function, R is the reflectance of the crystal, ÃŽ ± is absorption coefficient, s is scattering coefficient, A is absorbance and c is concentration of the absorbing species. The direct band-gap energy of the specimen is estimated as 4.05 eV, from the Tauc plot [F(R)hÃŽ ½]2 versus hÃŽ ½ (eV) (Fig. 3.1.6). Fig. 3.1.6. Tauc plot (Direct Band gap energy) 3.1.7 X-ray diffraction analysis The powder XRD pattern of PLHP shows that the sample is of a single phase without a detectable impurity. Narrow peaks indicate the good crystallinity of the material. At room temperature all the observed reflections were indexed. The indexed powder XRD pattern is shown in Fig. 3.1.7.1. Peak positions in powder XRD match with simulated XRD patterns from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The relative intensity variations could be due to the preferred orientation of the sample used for diffractogram measurement. Also, the mosaic spread of powder and single crystal patterns may differ, resulting in intensity variations. The structure of PLHP is elucidated and the ORTEP is given as Fig. 3.1.7.2. Three-dimensional view of intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions is displayed in Fig. 3.1.7.3. The chemical formula C16H16KLiO11 confirms the presence of K and Li in the crystalline matrix, well supported by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The specimen crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with the noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The crystallographic parameters of PLHP, KHP, LiKP and LiHP are listed in Table 3.1.7.1. Fig.3.1.7.1. Experimental (red) and simulated (blue) powder XRD patterns Fig.3.1.7.2. ORTEP of PLHP Fig.3.1.7.3. Three dimensional view of intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions (OHà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O) Table 3.1.7.1. Crystal data of LiHP, KHP, LiKP and PLHP crystals The alkali ions are linked to each other by O–Hà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O hydrogen bonds through the carboxylate oxygen. The O atoms of the carboxylate group (in phthalate ions) namely O(1)-O(8) are connected to K1, while the lithium ions are connected with central metal ion via O(5)-O(6), O atoms of the water molecules. The K-O bond distances range from 2.8311 (19) to 3.207 (8) Ã…, which is higher than bond distances observed in potassium hydrogen phthalate monohydrate 2.305 (1) –2.597 (1) Ã…. The Li–O bond distances lie in the range 1.956 (3)–1.968 (3) Ã…. The aromatic C-C bond distances fall in the range 1.377 (3) –1.485 (2) Ã…. The four carboxy C-O distances are almost same and the values are close to that observed for potassium hydrogen phthalate monohydrate107 and sodium acid phthalate108. In LiKP, O(4)–K(1) bond distance lies at 2.7491 Ã… whereas in our present study, the O(4)–K(1) bond dist ance is 2.7671 Ã…. The selected bond angles and bond lengths are given in Table 3.1.7.2. Crystal packing with hydrogen bonding interactions along the b-axis is given in Fig. 3.1.7.4. Strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions are O(2)-H(2)à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O(11) and O(5)-H(5B)à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O(3) assembled with distances of 1.77 and 1.86 Ã… respectively (Fig. 3.1.7.5). Weak intermolecular interactions are observed for O(7)-H(7B)à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O(10), O(7)-H(7B)à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O(11) and O(5)-H(5B)à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O(1), with bond distances of 2.41 (2), 2.46 (3) and 3.25 (4) Ã… respectively (Table 3.1.7.3.). Table 3.1.7.2. Selected bond lengths (Ã…) and angles (o) of PLHP Table 3.1.7.3. Hydrogen bonds geometry for PLHP [Ã…, o] Fig. 3.1.7.5. Three dimensional image of polyhedron with O-Hà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O interactions 3.1.8. SHG efficiency In order to confirm the influence of incorporation of lithium on the NLO properties of KHP the pure and mixed crystals were subjected to SHG test with an input radiation of 6.5 mJ/pulse. The outputs give the relative SHG efficiencies of the measured specimens. As seen, the SHG activity of the mixed crystal is comparable with that of KHP (Fig. 3.1.8) and it is quite likely due to the facile charge transfer, not disturbed by Li-incorporation. Although many materials have been identified that have higher molecular nonlinearities, the attainment of second-order effects requires favourable alignment of the molecule within the crystal109. It has been reported that the SHG can be greatly enhanced by altering the molecular alignment through inclusion complexation110. The mixed crystal PLHP grown from an aqueous solution containing equimolar quantities of reactants crystallize in a noncentrosymmetric space group P21 and SHG-active, whereas when Li is taken in excess in the growth medium the f ormed mixed crystal LiKP crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group P1 and hence SHG-inactive29. It is interesting to observe that the mixed crystal of KHP synthesized by a different route crystallises in a polar space group. By changing the growth conditions it is possible to attain noncentrosymmetry in preference to centrosymmetry, a required characteristic of an NLO material. Fig. 3.1.8. The comparative SHG oscilloscope traces of the powder samples of KHP (red) and PLHP (blue) 3.1.9. Hirshfeld surface analysis The Hirshfeld surfaces of PLHP have been demonstrated in Fig. 3.1.9.1 by showing dnorm, shape index, de and di. The Hirshfeld surface111-113 surrounding a molecule is defined by points where the contribution to the electron density from the molecule under consideration is equal to the contribution from all the other molecules. For each point on that isosurface, two distances are determined: one is de representing the distance from the point to the nearest nucleus external to the surface and second one is di, representing the distance to the nearest nucleus internal to the surface. The normalized contact distance (dnorm) is based on both de and di. The surfaces are shown as transparent to allow visualization of the molecule around which they were calculated. The circular depressions (deep red) which are visible on the Hirshfeld surface are an indicator of hydrogen bonding contacts and other visible spots in Fig. 3.1.9.1a are due to Oà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Li ( 3.6%), Hà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O (14.5%), Oà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢H (15.9%), Kà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O (2.0%) and Lià ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O (3.5%) interactions. The short interactions represented by deep red spots in de surface (Fig.3.1.9.1c) are Oà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Li contacts (3.6%). The dominant Oà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢H (14.5%), Lià ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O (3.5%) and Hà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢H (31.7%) interactions are viewed in di surface plots by the bright red area in Fig. 3.1.9.1d. The shape index indicates the shape of the electron density surface around the molecular interactions. The small range of area and light color on the surface represent a weaker and longer contact other than hydrogen bonds. The two-dimensional fingerprint plots114 of PLHP exemplify the strong evidenc e for the intermolecular interactions pattern. In the fingerprint region (Fig. 3.1.9.3), Oà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢H (15.9%) interactions are represented by a spike in the bottom area whereas the Hà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O (14.5%) interactions are represented by a spike in the top left region. Hydrogen-hydrogen interactions Hà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢H (31.7%) are very high while compared to the other bonding interactions. Sharp curved spike at the bottom left area indicates the Oà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Li (3.6%) and top left corner with curved spike indicates the Lià ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢O (3.5%). The finger print at the bottom right area represents Cà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢H (11.7%) interactions and top right area represents Hà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â€ž ¢C (8.7%) interactions. The number of interactions in terms of percent age are represented in a pie chart in Fig. 3.1.9.2. Fig.3.1.9.1. Hirshfeld surface analysis of PLHP (a) dnorm (b) shape index (c) de (d) di Fig. 3.1.9.2. Relative contribution of various intermolecular interactions in PLHP Fig. 3.1.9.3. Fingerprint plots of PLHP 1

Friday, September 20, 2019

Project and innovation management

Project and innovation management Project And Innovation Management With An It Focus Abstract: Todays technology has focused on the senses of sight, sound and touch. To enhance the sensibility of technology we have introduced our innovative project â€Å"Digital Olfactory System†. This is the area of virtual reality which also have very vast applications e.g. entertainment (games, movies etc), Internet and e-commerce. On successful implementation of this technology a videogame player or a viewer watching movie could feel the scent of the scenes of the game or movie. And an online buyer would be able to smell products online before buying them. Concept Generation And Selection This chapter gives a brief introduction of our innovation and defines how it will bring a change in the world of e-commerce and virtual reality and give competitive advantage to our company in the market. Introduction Every human being is granted with five senses i.e. sight, sound, smell, taste and touch. Our nose is the one that has more relegated in our sensitive surroundings. The sense of smell brings us into harmony with nature. It warns us of dangers and sharpens our awareness of other people, places and things. It helps us to respond the people we meet, can influence our mood. Our nose allows us to make sense out of scents about whats going on in the world around us. Right on the roof of the nasal cavity is the olfactory epithelium, contains special receptors which are sensitive to scent molecules that travel through the air. These receptors are microscopic and there are at about 10 million of them in human nose. By the time all the technology in the world has worked mostly on vision and the voice, similarly sufficient work has been done in technology to sense touch. We found that very fewer efforts are done to approach the sense of smell. So far, computers today can work with only 3 out of 5 senses. Innovation Description Scent is one of the most attractive phenomena of life. Use of the scent in environment has become an issue in society. Most companies today want to market their products though direct marketing, though which there is a desire to have an advertising ability which appeals to all five senses. To detect odours of different things we have the ability to smell. We have a special portion in our brain called Olfactory Lobe which senses smell. Human could only smell seven basic odours and their combination it is similar like four basic colours make all the colours. Smell has a great impact on how we perceive our surroundings or a new thing. It is the sense of human being which never turns off as a person smells with each of his breath and an adult person breath as often as 20,000 times a day. There are about 400000 different odours in the world, as human we can distinguish 10,000 different smells. Our aim is to develop a digital system which have the ability sense, capture and reproduce the most common smells. The sense of smell is closely related to memory and emotion which makes odour a powerful way to reinforce ideas. Product Description Digital Olfactory System will be a combination of both hardware and software. The hardware will capture and regenerate the smell while software evaluate the smell equation (e-smell equation) and generate bits (electrical signal) for a specific type of smell and finally the smell will be regenerated on the other receiving end. The hardware of the system will be comprised of two parts, i.e. one to sniff the smell and other is to regenerate the smell. The device will be connected with a computer system. The software part of this system will be a driver for this device which will analyse the sniffed smell and generate a digital equation to reproduce a specific odour. The software will also be able to convert the smell in to digital signals and broadcast on the web. The coded odour would be downloadable to the computer like images and sound files. Users will be able to modify, regenerate their own smells and post on internet. This technology will be able to produce scented emails, scented websites. In future it could also be possible that these devices play a vital role in our life like in movie theatre, TV and internet etc. Our product will not only be sold as a separate peripheral device for computer but it will also be integrated in Apple laptops, digital cams and cell phones. Implementing The Idea As discussed earlier that Digital Olfactory System will be a combination of both hardware and software. The hardware of the system will be comprised of two parts, i.e. one to sniff the smell and other is to regenerate the smell. To capture smell a device like smell detector could be used. As discussed above that there are seven basic smells which are minty, floral, ethereal, musky, resinous, foul, and acrid. These basic smells combine together to make 400000 smells in the world. Prototype The device to sniff odour have the special circuitry to detect each of the individual smell from a sniffed smell and pass its signals to the device driver which have the built-in capability to calculate the equation of the sniffed aroma on the basis of the intensity of each basic smell. While on the regenerating side this scent will be reproduces by reversing the e-smell equation. The smell reproducing device will have the cartridge filled with seven basic scents. The device driver software will send the e-smell equation to the micro controller of the smell generator. The microcontroller will than mix the appropriate quantity (as per equation) of each of the basic smell to reproduce the sniffed smell. Applications of Digital Olfactory System Digital olfactory system aims to manufacture the hardware for smelling device (recording the smell), storing the smell (in the shape of digital signals) and regenerating device to regenerate the smell as output. It develops the software and the hardware for the entire process. Digital olfactory system would with a driver package that could be installed on any computer to make the system compatible with the computer. The idea is to make all these devices function independently ,which means that the regenerating device can be installed independently on any computer and can act as a receiver which has its own advantages especially in future when the laptops , computers and televisions could be manufactured with built in digital olfactory receiver system. Similarly by manufacturing the receiver or the smell sensor separately, it can be used in digital cameras as an additional feature and the pictures can give a real time feel if viewed on a television or a computer with a regenerator tha t is   built in or attached as a peripheral device. The regenerators could also be designed as just generators that can be used as room fresheners for big rooms and car fresheners for cars. There could be many applications for digital scent such as:   Cameras equipped with digital scent technology can capture image as well as smell   Send scented email (how romantic)   Watch scented DVDs   Play scented video games   Try a perfume from a products website Why We Want To Do This? There could be many applications of our product but the four basic types of applications that Digital Olfactory System seems a logic fit for at the moment.   Marketing   Entertainment   Education   Medical Company Structure And Market Research Phase In this chapter we have discussed our business model and defined that how the internal and external factor can affect the market. Our product Digital Olfactory System As we have discussed our product in detail in previous sections as far as design and application of our product is concerned it will be a small device with inbuilt smell sniffer and smell synthesiser connected with a computer or some other equipment like digital camera, gaming console, TV, Digital Projector etc. Our technology will make it possible to send scented emails. This product will be sold as peripheral device for computer and it will also be integrated in laptops, digital cameras and cell phones. Our Vision Our vision is to enhance the experience of viewing by making it livelier and giving it a feel of real time experience, through this innovation we could also to some extend replace the use of natural fragrance by using artificial perfumes ,this could also boost the advertisement companies for making advertisement with smell sensors ,this would give out a clear idea of their product ,especially in industries in perfumes ,deodorants business and more so in food industries .It could   attract more customers ,which is what any company intends to do through   any advertisement. This innovation can be used for security purpose as well; a more sensitive smell sensor could as a bomb sensor which could be of high to help locating and diffusing a bomb. By manufacturing dedicated smell regenerators the use of artificial flowers could be increased because the only thing missing in todays artificial flowers made of plastic or synthetic fibre is fragrance and by adding fragrance to them the exp erience though arterial could be felt as very real and natural. The scope of this product is wide and the demand would only increase with the technological advancement in various sectors of IT and non IT sectors. Business Model (Source, Hedman and Kaling (2002), IT and Business Models, Pg 113) As seen in the business model the important factors effecting a business are, Suppliers, resources, Activities and organization, the scope of management ,the offerings and   the market/industry that has the competitors and the customers. As we intend to manufacture the digital olfactory system, there can be a company that is dedicated to manufacture the digital olfactory systems or it can be used by various companies in various industries who could manufacture customized digital olfactory system. We will try to relate the components of   business model   with the companies who might use it as a customized   additional feature in their already existing products, we would like the digital camera industry Canon to use the digital olfactory system   technology for recording the real time smell or fragrance by introducing a build in smell sensor in their cameras, and we would like apple to use the digital olfactory system technology for regenerating the real time smell or fragrance by introducing a build in smell regenerator in their laptops and computers. We would explain the business model and the components of the business model of these two companies relating with the addition of this new feature in their prod uct. According to Barneys Resource Based View (Hedman and Kalling, 2002) the Activities are performed by a business to use the companies resources, offerings are the products and the services the firm has to offer through their sales. If a firm utilizes its resources in the best possible manner then invariable they will have more to offer to the customers. The camera company Canon and the laptop company Apple could use their resources to built this technology and use it for their product which would improve on what they have to offer to their customers, if they be the first ones to come up with this feature then their competitors like Nikon, Sony and other in camera industry and dell, hp and other in computer industry would lack this competitive advantage, hence this would give Canon and apple a clear edge over their competitors. External Context It is important to analyze the external environment for any product of a company as it has a lot of forces acting on it that it has to deal with to be successful in the market. Market Segments Since we choose to add the feature of a smell sensor in the cameras of Canon and a smell regenerator in the laptops and desktops of Apple, we will focus on the camera and computer manufacturing companies and the market pertaining to it. We would describe further how this added feature can give Cannon and Apple a competitive advantage over their competitors and give more value for the product to their customers. The product will also face the forces in the external market like the suppliers, buyers substitutes, potential entrants and competitors which are the porters five forces we will discuss how and what extent these forces tries to hamper the success of this product. Competitors Some of the competitors of Cannon are Nikon, Sony, Samsung, Sony Ericson and others while the competitors of Apple are other computer manufactures like Dell, Hp, IBM and others, if Canon and Apple come up with the additional feature of digital olfactory system in their product it will surely give them a competitive advantage over their other competitors as it would be first of its kind of a product launched in the market. Buyers Buyers are the customers of the product, the buyers of this new product from Canon would be worldwide, and this could attract all the age groups that are interested in photography and also the professional photographers. While the customers of Apple who are already impressed by Apples innovative products would want to buy this product which would increase their sales and hence increase their profit. Potential Entrant Since it will be a product which will be first of its kind the threat from a new entrant will be less at least in the initial stages of the product life after the launch. Suppliers The suppliers of this additional feature could be the highly eminent staffs that work in RD department of Apple and Canon. The product will be developed by renowned computer, digital cam and cell phone manufacturing companies like Samsung, Sony Ericson, Canon and Apple. The companies already have their suppliers.   Although this is a totally new idea the companies might have to use their own resources to develop specialised hardware like sniffer and smell regenerator.   Substitutes Threats from the substitute can be assumed to be low as this being an innovative product it will surely take time for other companies to come up with the same technology. Internal Context Internal context can be seen through following factors Related Product Line The intention is to add an additional feature, the Digital olfactory system in cameras and computers, that is the smell sensor in Canon cameras and smell regenerator in Apple computers. Factors Affecting Product Development Some of the possible factors affecting product development are Market research and knowledge, risk management, coordination. Market Research It is important that the company is aware of the public demand, as eventually its the buyers that make the market for a product so there can be a research carried out for a product that we intend to launch. It can be done by the research teams of Apple and Cannon. Risk Management The project managers of Cannon and Apple will have to plan a risk management plan for the proper running of this new project, with innovation comes a lot of risk, since its a completely new technology there will be no references available to work out a plan so it is up to the project managers to make a plan and decide how to move along in this innovative project. Knowledge Management Knowledge management is not very easy to define precisely and simply. According to Brian (Bo) Newman, 1991 â€Å"Knowledge Management is the collection of processes that govern the creation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge†. Our project is a complex project which not only involves an innovative hardware and software to make it. There are different people from different fields (e.g. electronic engineers, microchip programmers, system developers etc) have to work on this project. To make every detail of the project available to each member of the development team there should be a common (shared) repository and database to manage the knowledge carefully. (Bessant Tidd, p 194). Coordination The success of any depends on how well it has been coordinated, in this case it is even so true because there will have to be good coordination between the different sectors and set of engineers working in the company to make the project successful. Quality Assurance Quality is intangible and is often considered unimportant in development. Quality assurance is a planned and systematic set of several activities implemented in a system to verify that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled Cost It is one of the major factors of product development. Our idea includes lots of research and development both in hardware and software. For this project initial estimate is about 6 million Krons. A small amount of about 5 to 10% of the total cost will be reserved in lieu of the unpredictable costs. Market Research Market Research is a collection and analysis of data about a particular product in a target market it also performs the analysis of the competition and environment of the market. It allows the companies to learn more about past, current and potential customers, including their specific likes and dislikes. The data can be collected either from primary research or secondary research. The aim of the market research is to get more understanding about a product to launch it in the market or to analyses the consumption of a product in the market and for many other different purposes. This research could be qualitative or quantitative. Market Interaction As we are going to introduce a digital nose and named it â€Å"Digital Olfactory System†. It is a totally new idea. We are intended to include our digital olfactory system in computers, digital cameras and cell phones. Apple computers are popular for its Mac computers; similarly Sony and Canon are renowned for their digital cameras and throughout the world. These companies will include our system in their products as an additional feature and introduce these products worldwide. So the users of Mac based computers, digital cam and cell phone users (of the whole world) who want to capture scent and enjoy it while playing movies and games, retrieving pictures, would be our target customers. To research on market interaction we have to use 4P model to examine the market in the context of product, price, promotion and placement. Product: Apple computers, Sony and Canons digital cams and Sony Ericsson are very famous in the whole world for good quality of their products. Including the new feature in their system will give them a competitive advantage in the market and boost their profit. Price: Average prices of products Apple, Canon, Sony, Samsung and Sony Ericson are quite high and demand of their products is also very high. Addition of a completely new feature in their products will increase the products price up to 30 to 50%. But the high demand of the products in market justifies the higher price to some extent. Promotion: before the launch of product there would be promotional campaigns of the product line which include a stunningly new feature of sensing and regenerating scene in digital format. For these campaigns all the communication channels and media will be used. All of our companies mentioned above already have their brand names worldwide. Customers satisfaction (word of mouth) on the product line of these companies would also be helpful in product promotion. Placement: The product line equipped with new feature will be placed at thousand of sales points spanned over the world, of Apple, Sony, Canon, Samsung, and Sony Ericson. Implementation Phase This chapter gives a brief overview of implementation phase of our product. We will see how the team will be organised, what are the responsibilities of each team member; time and cost factors will be calculated. And finally the successful launch of the product. Product Innovations And Development Process To implement our innovation project stage gate model will be used. Below is given the detailed description of the model: Initial Screen: At initial Screen Two Criteria Are Defined Which Are:   Must meet   Should meet Must meet criteria would define the standards which will mandatory for the project in order to move to the next stage. It will define the prerequisites (the minimum requirements) for each stage. Should meet will be some extra requirements, which will not be necessary to fulfil but they will add more value to the product if met. After analysing the â€Å"must meet† and â€Å"should meet† criteria a feasibility report will be prepared by the Financial Analyst to check that both criteria are fulfilled. Preliminary Assessment: it is the 1st stage at which the project is accessed on the basis of market research in which the scope of the project is assessed and success factors are calculated. We are confident that no other company is working on this new idea. The customers requirements and demands will be found out during market research and we will try to implement the final design of our product according to the requirements of the customers. Funding of the project will be started and total time required for the completion of project will be analysed at this stage. Detailed investigation will be done focusing on the scope and cost of the project. Analysis will be made prior to the product development and must meet and should meet criteria will be made sure. Innovative idea will be reviewed finally. Post-Implementation Analysis: product performance will be analysed by calculating the profit earned through its sale in the market. Required improvements in marketing plans and products performance will be made in the light of the results gained. Product Development Model Spiral Model The product could be developed using the Spiral development model as shown below: Spiral model gives an incremental approach towards the development of any system. It is also used if the risk factor is quite high in development process. As our idea is new and it requires lots of research and development. Spiral model gives an opportunity to reconsider the product design and development at several different stages. Requirement Stage The requirement stage is the first stage where all the information about the requirements of the project is collected efficiently by the research team or a dedicated team chosen for the project and then the data is delivered for the next stage. System Design This stage has the designing of the product, a design of product is necessary before the implementation of the product; the design is built based on the information from the requirement stage. Implementation And Coding The software code will be written at this stage and hardware will be produced on test level. This stage sees the implementation of the design created for the product, this is one of the most crucial stages as the risk management plan has a dedicated time and budget to get the product manufactured and everything has to be done as planed of foreseen for the product to be successful. Testing And Verification After the product is manufactured it has to be verified and tested before it could go into production stage at commercial level, verification stage allows the glitches if any in the product (either in hardware or software) to be fixed through a feed back to the implementation stage. This has to repeat till the product is as per desire. This all be done keeping in mind the time constraint. As the longer it takes the more time it gives to the competitors. Commercial Production Once the product is verified and passed as okay to be manufactured then it hits the production stage where it is manufactured in a number that is according to the plan that is made before the designing of the product starts .once in the production it can be increased or decreased based on the sales and market of the product. Product Development Team Model For successful development of each product good man power is the key resource. Skilled work force acts as the backbone in every project. To complete our project successfully we require a team of about 9 members which include: 1 Project Manager 1 Electronics Design Engineer 1 Embedded Systems Engineer 1 Software Developer 1 Engineer for Quality Assurance 1 Financial Advisor 2 Sales and Marketing Personnel Project manager will manage the overall project and will be responsible to manage and monitor all the project activities and mange for the project development. Project manager will also be responsible to bridge the gap between top management and the members of the project development team. Role of the electronics design engineer would be to design the circuitry of sniffer and smell regenerator. He will also responsible to design the digital circuits of the system and selection of appropriate microchips which will be used in the hardware of the Digital Olfactory System. Embedded System engineer will be responsible to write the device drivers and to design routines for microchips which will be used in scent sniffer and regenerator these microchips will coordinate with computer through device driver software which will also be developed by the system programmer. Software developer will be responsible to design the system interface and coordinate with embedded programmer to develop a mutual plan of software development for the DOS. Quality assurance engineer will monitor the quality of the product at each level he will also give his recommendations to the product development team to improve the quality and performance of the product at all phases of development. Role of Financial Advisor would be to keep track of the finances at each phase. He will also provide feasible financial solutions in a particular situation. Marketing and sales executives will make the plans and strategies to promote the product. They conduct market research and launch advertising campaigns. Development Process For Finance And Time Finances We have a budget of about 5 million Swedish Krons to accomplish our project. We are intended to allocate the financial resources mentioned below: Intellectual Property Rights Issue To protect our innovation from imitation and illegal copying we will get the intellectual property rights of our product. Our product is combination of hardware and software. The hardware will be patented and the software will be copy righted. To get the patent rights of our product we have reserved an amount of 200,000 SEK in our budget. Commercialization Phase In this chapter we discuss the diffusion model of commercialization phase of our product. Commercialization is the last phase of innovation process model according to our stage gate model. Type Of Market Launch This is the final and very important stage of the project, as it decides the success or failure of the product in the market. A good marketing strategy leads towards the success of the product in the market. For our project we have focused on market research in a great detail, we will also going to induct two marketing and sales executive to make business plans and do market research. Before launching the product into market we will test it in all conditions and perspectives. After the careful testing of our product we will perform the test marketing (Pilot Launch) of our product. According to businessdictonary.com the definition of test marketing is: â€Å"Product development stage where the product and its marketing plan are exposed to a carefully chosen sample of the population for deciding if to reject it before its full scale launch. Test marketing is an experiment conducted in a field laboratory (the test market) comprising of actual stores and real-life buying situations, without the buyers knowing they are participating in an evaluation exercise. It simulates the eventual market-mix to ascertain consumer reaction. Depending on the quality and quantity of sales data required for the final decision, test marketing may last from few weeks to several months. Due to its high cost, however, test marketing is more suitable for fast moving packaged goods than for consumer durables† Any marketing strategy is incomplete without advertising. (I have seen an interesting quote about advertising somewhere â€Å"without advertising its like smiling in the darkness†) On successful completion of the pilot launch of the product the product will be advertise trough all the media e.g. TV, radio, Internet, newspapers, magazines, hand bills etc. Diffusion Model The Product Diffusion Curve is a useful model that helps a company to think about who it should be targeting at different stages of the life of its product or service. Understanding the Product Diffusion Curve, we can target our marketing efforts intelligently, getting the best returns from our efforts. At the start of launch of our product sales is expected very low. Our product will not only be sold as a separate peripheral device for computer but it will also be integrated in Apple laptops, digital cams and cell phones. So all the customer of these products will be attracted to a revolutionary new feature of transmitting and saving smell. This will increase the sales of the product and companies will earn a maximum profit within a time period of one year. According to Bessant and Tidd (2007, P342) there are several characteristics which effect the diffusion of the product. Relative Advantage: Our technology is a totally new idea and there is no company using such technology in their products. Due this new feature the people will be attracted to buy those products which will be equipped with digital olfactory system. Compatibility: Our system will be compatible with all the existing products (in which we are going to add it) in the market e.g. laptops, digital cameras and cell phones. Complexity: The working of the products equipped with DOS will be very simple there would be only one button on computers, cameras and cell phones to activate / deactivate whether the smell capturing or not. Similarly on retrieving the scented file the system will prompt that the file has extra feature of scent and on activating that feature the user can enjoy the real scent while retrieving the file. Trail ability: The demonstration of functionality of our system will be given at every sales point and this feature will be used for the marketing of the products having DOS. Observe ability: The functionality and performance of the products having DOS will be observed keenly for a period of 6 months and if any problem occurs it will be try to resolve. There would also be a parallel research to improve quality of our system. References Websites: http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00386/smell/funtosmell.htm (Accessed on 2010-03-01) http://www.insyte-consulting.com/Home/InTheNews/Newsletter/JanuaryFebruary2009/AlternativeModelsHelpManageProductDevelopmentRisk (Accessed on 2010-03-04) Books:

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay example --

1 John Adams—the first vice president of the United States, an American Founding Father, and well-educated Republican—is most commonly known for being the second president of the United States. As a lifelong opponent to slavery, Adams never bought a slave in his life. He assisted Thomas Jefferson in the writing of the Declaration of Independence, and helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain. Adams won the Presidential Election in 1796 with only having only three votes more than Thomas Jefferson. But John Adam’s life wasn’t all based on presidency, obviously. His early life was just as normal as anyone else’s. John Adams was born on October 30, 1735 in Quincy, Massachusetts to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. Adam’s birthplace is now part of Adams National Historical Park. [3] He was born into a normal but not wealthy farming family. His father earned a living as a farmer and shoemaker about fifteen miles away from Boston. Adams loved the outdoors, and was always skipping school to go hunting and fishing. He would have preferred a life as a farmer, but later on his dad insisted that he get a formal education. Adams attended a local school that was designed for teaching skills of reading and writing, and he also attended a Latin school for those who planned to go to college. Adams commonly praised his father and indicated that he and his father were very close when he was a child. Young Adams went to Harvard College at age sixteen in 1751. His father expected him to become a minister, but Adams had doubts. After graduating in 2 1755, he taught school for a few years in Worcester, allowing himself time to think about his career choice. Later on, he decided to become a lawyer, and studied law in the office of John P... ...ever owned a slave either. I think it would have been better if he made it so it was illegal to own a slave but then that would have caused more problems for his presidency and lots of people would vote against him. I think that once everyone found out about Adams being against slavery, that’s what hurt him in the election when he ran for his second term and got beat. I also like that he was all about making the world peaceful, even though he knew people would hate him for it. The way Adams handled wars was good because he was always finding a way to make it to peace without actually physically fighting or going to war. Although there were wars that they went to, Adams did what he had to do to get it over with. He made his way around war as much as possible. Overall, John Adams is one of my favorite presidents mostly because of what he did and what he believed in. Essay example -- 1 John Adams—the first vice president of the United States, an American Founding Father, and well-educated Republican—is most commonly known for being the second president of the United States. As a lifelong opponent to slavery, Adams never bought a slave in his life. He assisted Thomas Jefferson in the writing of the Declaration of Independence, and helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain. Adams won the Presidential Election in 1796 with only having only three votes more than Thomas Jefferson. But John Adam’s life wasn’t all based on presidency, obviously. His early life was just as normal as anyone else’s. John Adams was born on October 30, 1735 in Quincy, Massachusetts to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. Adam’s birthplace is now part of Adams National Historical Park. [3] He was born into a normal but not wealthy farming family. His father earned a living as a farmer and shoemaker about fifteen miles away from Boston. Adams loved the outdoors, and was always skipping school to go hunting and fishing. He would have preferred a life as a farmer, but later on his dad insisted that he get a formal education. Adams attended a local school that was designed for teaching skills of reading and writing, and he also attended a Latin school for those who planned to go to college. Adams commonly praised his father and indicated that he and his father were very close when he was a child. Young Adams went to Harvard College at age sixteen in 1751. His father expected him to become a minister, but Adams had doubts. After graduating in 2 1755, he taught school for a few years in Worcester, allowing himself time to think about his career choice. Later on, he decided to become a lawyer, and studied law in the office of John P... ...ever owned a slave either. I think it would have been better if he made it so it was illegal to own a slave but then that would have caused more problems for his presidency and lots of people would vote against him. I think that once everyone found out about Adams being against slavery, that’s what hurt him in the election when he ran for his second term and got beat. I also like that he was all about making the world peaceful, even though he knew people would hate him for it. The way Adams handled wars was good because he was always finding a way to make it to peace without actually physically fighting or going to war. Although there were wars that they went to, Adams did what he had to do to get it over with. He made his way around war as much as possible. Overall, John Adams is one of my favorite presidents mostly because of what he did and what he believed in.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Grandmothers jewelry box :: essays research papers

My Grandmothers Jewelry Box An object I found to be most significant and interesting is my grandmother’s jewelry box. This jewelry box has been an important object in my life since I was a little girl. Whenever I glance over, incredible memories dance in my head of my grandmother and me. I chose to write about this jewelry box because it’s so important to me. Ever since I was a little girl I wanted nothing more than to be like my grandmother. My grandmother’s jewelry box rests on my nightstand in my bedroom. It’s a polished dark wooden box which contains three different compartments. One is for necklaces and bracelets, the second earrings, and the third rings. When you open the top there’s a little girl dancing in circles while lovely music would play. This jewelry box was bought in the 1930’s when my grandmother was only ten. Even now in the present the jewelry box looks like new and still so beautiful. My grandmother started this collection with all her mother’s jewelry from when she was a little girl. Year by year the jewelry box would fill up with such stunning things, and I would only wish they could be mine. My grandmother always dressed so beautifully and what made her stand out most was the jewelry she complimented her outfit with. When I stayed at my grandmother’s house, dress up was something I loved to do, and I did it almost every day. I would try on almost all of her jewelry she owned and dance around the house. As I grew up and my grandmother started getting older, that jewelry box meant more to me then just playing dress up. I knew how much the jewelry box meant to my grandmother and every time I glanced at it, it reminds me of how beautiful my grandmother was. At age 80, my grandmother passed away, leaving me the jewelry box. This meant more to me then anything. She knew how much I loved her jewelry and I’m thrilled to know when I get older I’ll be able to show them off, in memory of her. Every time I look at the jewelry box it brings back fond memories of my grandmother and the precious times we had together.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

How does Robert Louis Stevenson Create a sense of Mystery, Horror and Suspense Essay

In the novella â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† Robert Louise Stevenson uses many techniques to create a sense of mystery, horror and suspense. In this essay I will be analyzing some of these techniques in further depth. I will be explaining what effect these techniques will have on the reader. â€Å"The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† was published in 1886 and is probably the best known of Stevenson’s novels. It concerns the fine divide between good and evil. In the book the reader finds out more about how and why Dr Jekyll created a potion that separates the good side from the evil side, of the person. Unfortunately he lost control of the situation, resulting in a number of unfortunate events. Mr. Utterson is widely regarded as a good man, there is much evidence in â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† to back this statement up. One piece of evidence to show this is when the reader is told â€Å"something eminently human beaconed from his eyes†. This is a short and meaningful insight into the persona of Mr. Utterson. . We are also told that he had a â€Å"approved tolerance for others†. This is more evidence to show that he could empathise and care about people. This also makes the audience think that he will be tested. He is also said to be â€Å"the last good influence in the lives of down going men†, he is known to be a compassionate man, he looks to help people rather than judge them. This also makes the reader think that being a client of Mr Utterson, Dr Jekyll may be possible in store to be coming into some trouble. We are told much about Dr Jekyll’s House in the novel. â€Å"Showed no windows†, what does it mean to the reader, why would this mysterious character have no windows, what is he hiding, or what is hiding in there. This raises questions to the audience about the man, why would a man in a respected profession such as a doctor want to be living a life like this in a house with no windows. It says that â€Å"the wall was discoloured† and the it â€Å"bore marks of prolonged and sordid negligence†. This leads the audience to wonder, what would cause the walls to be discoloured and why does man take so little pride in his abode. The writer Robert Louse Stevenson uses words like the word sordid to create an image of evil and wickedness. IT is said to be â€Å"blistered and disdained† and have â€Å"neither bell or knocker†. The later of the two statements bears more negative connotations than the former. The fact that the house has no bell or knocker signifies to the reader that Dr Jekyll does not wish to be disturbed thus adding to the atmosphere of secrecy. Why would a man such like Dr Jekyll wish not to bothered what is he hiding in this house. The Final Statement regarding the dwelling of Dr Jekyll is typical of gothic writings of that era, it has mysterious connotations that intrigue the reader in saying â€Å"some place at the end of the world†. It also conjures up images of evil when Enfield says â€Å"Black winter morning†. On page 11 the reader is recounted the story of how Mr. Hyde trampled over the child. This is most probably the best example of the Robert Lewis Stevenson using specific techniques to create an innate sense of horror. He uses a common technique of the era, using descriptive, detailed language to intensify the sense of horror. For instance he says â€Å"some place at the end of the world about three o’clock of a black winter morning†, he also goes on to say about how empty and lifeless the streets were. The reader is also made to feel fearful, wary and loathsome towards this beast whom is said to have felt no remorse for the heinous act he had just committed. The writer instills these feelings within us by saying thing like â€Å"the man trampled calmly over the child’s body† this not only makes the reader horrified that someone could do such a thing, is also exceedingly curious as to who this man could be and why is he so remorseless for what he has done. Mr. Enfield makes several accounts of Mr. Hyde’s persona. The way in which Mr. Enfield reacts to the sight of Mr. Hyde makes the reader believe he must be a truly terrible man to provoke such a reaction from a well respected man such as Mr. Enfield. Mr. Enfield Says that Hyde â€Å"gave me one look, so ugly that it brought the sweat on me like running†, The reader will immediately relate someone being hideously ugly to them being morally objectionable. He also says â€Å"I had taken a loathing to the man at first sight† the reader questions what could it be that causes him to beacon this loathsome aura. It is said by Enfield that it was not only him to feel this way towards Hyde â€Å"I saw that sawbones turn sick and white with the desire to kill him† the reader wonders what could possible cause a man you whom had previously been described as emotionless to feel this way to a man he does not even know. The final account of Hyde is short but is nonetheless important it is when Hyde is described as being â€Å"really like Satan†. This is a grave accusation to make, saying that a man is like Satan the epitome of all that is evil. It is not false though Hyde is all that is evil within Dr. Jekyll. Mr. Enfield says that the man he saw was â€Å"of the name Hyde†. This name has a eerie ring to it, it carries a certain mystique. When people hear the name Hyde they immediately think of secrecy and what is the secrecy for. Later in the novel Utterson makes reference to Hyde’s name saying â€Å"If he is Mr. Hyde then I shall be Mr. Seek†. This immediately makes the reader think of the childhood game hide and seek. If this mans name is Hyde then why must he be found, what will he do? One technique that Stevenson uses to great effect is withholding information about the character Mr. Hyde. Mr. Enfield says â€Å"no sir I had a delicacy, I feel very strongly about putting questions†. This is Enfield saying that he did not inquire too deeply about Hyde. This creates mystery and suspense. Hyde is a mysterious character who the reader knows very little about but is intrigued by. Suspense is created by the fear of what this man is going to do. Enfield and Utterson also agree not to talk about this man again. This makes the reader incredibly suspicious of why it is that these two men do not wish to speak about this incident. Mr. Utterson states on page fifteen that already knows of Mr. Hyde saying â€Å"The fact is, if I do not ask you the name of the other party, it is because I know it already†. This shows to the reader that Mr. Utterson knows more than he is letting on. This makes the audience suspicious as to why a good man like Utterson would feel the need to keep this information to himself. Chapter two Dr. Jekyll’s will is very bizarre it says that â€Å"in the case of Dr. Jekyll’s disappearance or unexplained absence for any period exceeding three calendar months, the said Edward Hyde should step into the said Henry Jekyll’s shoes without further delay†. This engages the readers interest as to what the connection is between Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. It’s irrationality is said to have â€Å"offended Mr. Utterson both as a lawyer and a lover of the sane†. It is strange because it does not say that he should be dead before he steps in. Mr. Utterson is left baffled by what has been written in Jekyll’s will and decides to go visit Dr. Lanyon. Lanyon tells Utterson that ten years ago â€Å"he began to go wrong in the mind†. This raises suspicions in the readers mind about Dr. Jekyll now that they see that one of his dearest friends now speaks of him in such a way. He sys that his â€Å"unscientific balderdash† was so delirious and immoral that is could have â€Å"estranged Damon and Pythias† who in Greek mythology are known for being inseparable friends. The reader must wonder what it is that Dr. Jekyll did to provoke such a claim from a close friend. Lanyon says to Utterson that he knows not of Hyde. This makes the audience suspicious of how it is possible for a man who claims to have been so close to Dr. Jekyll, but does not even know the man who he wishes to leave his entire estate to. We are told that Mr. Enfield’s â€Å"imagination also was engaged, or rather enslaved; as he lay and tossed in the gross darkness of the night†. Stevenson tells the reader that Utterson is imagining all of the terrible things that this Hyde character could have done. This automatically makes the reader imagine which builds up a sense of horror in the readers mind. We are told that Utterson did not know what Hyde looked like. Like Mr. Utterson the reader will imagine the worst of what Mr. Hyde looks like. He is described as a â€Å"human Juggernaut† the word Juggernaut instills images of an untamed beast that you must be cautious around. â€Å"It was the face of a man who was without bowels of mercy† This makes the reader tense about how terrible this man could be. â€Å"Spirit of enduring hatred† it could be because of the way Enfield reacted to this man that has caused Utterson to feel this way. When Utterson finally meets Hyde it is a very Dramatic tense scene full of typical language from gothic writings of that era e.g. â€Å"it was a fine dry night, frost in the air, the streets as clean as a ball room† this is typical extremely descriptive scene setting. From previous descriptions of Mr. Hyde the reader can only expect the worse for Mr. Utterson.

Monday, September 16, 2019

The American dominance of the world’s

Its no doubt the United States at the moment enjoys an unchallenged hegemony in the world. For a few decades now the United States has been at the center of the international politics and economics .It has increased tenth folds the sphere of influence to areas key of its national interests.This supremacy and domination has not been a smooth ride. It has not been without its price to a point that United States citizens have paid with their blood. The events of the September 11th attack remain fresh in the Americans’ mind.The American dominance of the world’s events means that its foreign policies remain the most important in the world. It is at the forefront in shaping the world’s destiny and in rooting out any impediments on the way to securing its national interests. It has pioneered nuclear non-proliferation treaties; instituted democracy and governance, intervened militarily in unseating regimes it has felt are a threat to its national security.It continues to shape events in both far and wide countries be it the Middle East, Asia or in Africa. Core to the United States foreign policy is in the intense war it has waged against terrorist organizations in the world. The September of 2001 put into question the impregnability of the United States and all systems have been put alert since.The American government has channeled all its efforts and resources towards containing terrorist organization. In this way regimes have been toppled, thousands dead and a dictator executed.This is not just an example of how the United States, under the foreign policy, responds to international issues, how it utilizes its resources to shape events that it believes are critical to its interests and an international unipolar image.   This and more will remain the key focus of this paper. It will examine how the U.S has been responding to international crises, politics and economics (Stephen E, Flynn, 26).One such period that can highlight on the U.S. foreign policies is the cold war. Never before in the history of the United States did the government commit so much to contain the threat of a rising hegemony and a threat to its dominance. The cold war was a war of ideologies and tension-full relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.Although there was no physical confrontation between the two superpowers, the period from 1940-19900 was characterized by proxy wars, military buildup especially the nuclear arms race and supremacy in technology including the race to space.The two countries were trying to prove their international dominion and hence furthered their respective ideologies and economic systems. While the United States was advocating for capitalism the soviet bloc was a propagating for communism.In this period the United States government was using both military and financial resources to influence the political and economic trends in the world. This was the focus of its foreign policy.Economic aid then was pegg ed on a categorical statements through words and actions that a government was supporting and operationalizing the tenants of capitalism, democracy had taken a back seat then, history is full of incidences when the United States waged proxy wars to unseat democratically elected governments on mere suspicions that they were leaning towards communism and replacing with dictatorial regimes (John L P.49)

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Miscarriages of Justice

â€Å"It’s a general problem not specific to the law of the United Kingdom a criminal justice system characterized by an emphasis on crime control rather than due process will inevitably produce miscarriage of justice. † In an imaginary world the law would always give the correct results but in a real world it’s the other way. When they don’t which way do they tend to err? Which way do we want to err? We want the law to err on the side of acquitting guilty people rather than convicting ones.It is generally accepted that the price of a fair Criminal Justice System will be acquittal on a technicality of those who have committed criminal offences or because of a failure of evidence, where as conviction of the innocent is never acceptable and should it arise speedy measures should be taken to rectify the injustice. The criminal law must be enforced efficiently by the agencies to police the criminal law.There are two main values that influence the criminal Just ice System, the crime control model which focuses to free society from crime and the due process model which focuses on individual liberties to be protected. The crime control model ensures that a civilized society can protect all of its citizens from victimization by criminals. But whether this has happened is questionable because when the Criminal Justice System is tilted more towards crime control there is a chance of an innocent person being convicted of a crime he never committed thus forming a miscarriage of justice.In recent times countries like United Kingdom, America, Canada and Ireland have tilted more towards crime control mainly because of the terrorist attacks that shook those nations. Moreover the racial attitude in the police and also in the society has led the crime control to be harsh on the society. The miscarriages that happen maybe due to discriminatory police practices, it may be due to incompetent scientific evidence or the over-reliance of the court on expert testimony. Where mistakes, made by those who have power within the process so this power when abused can have critical consequences.The protection of innocent remains fundamental to the process of justice and for many the sole purpose, it should not be absolute according to Ashworth (1998). The acquittal of guilty persons can also be seen as a miscarriage of justice. The process of justice is one marked by the use of agency and individual discretion, most notably by the police. Both the due process and crime control models allow for that discretion, although the former does seek legislative means for reducing its use and influence.The crime control model relies on presumption of guilt, the recognition that victims should have more rights than the accused, belief that prison and other punishment must be unpleasant in order to work, belief that sentences must be long to protect the public and belief that keeping order on the street is more important than following the letter of the la w. The crime control model is about focusing the purpose of the Criminal Justice Process on the demands of the majority of citizens who are law abiding.It seems clear that the current Criminal Justice Process was designed for the much lower level of crime that existed in the past and is too bureaucratic, time consuming and inefficient to deal effectively with the sheer volume of crime that now exists. This system demands a high level of informal fact finding, the case is dealt with outside of the formal court setting as much as possible. The model rightly assumes that offenders â€Å"rights are less important than victim rights and justice is for the majority of law abiding citizens not for the minority of repeat offenders.This model of justice accepts that there will be a few aberrant cases where the innocent are convicted, but this is justified by the notion that crime control overwhelmingly achieves the greater good for the majority. At the international level miscarriage of jus tice is the subject of norms but its meaning is imprecise. Lord Phillip and Brown presume ‘the man on the street would define ‘miscarriage of justice’ as the conviction of the innocent. It was stated in the Court of Appeal case of Exp.Bateman(1994) that man might define the term more broadly, to include those convicted when they should not have been. In countries the policing the law we see that more power has been vested in the police which is one reason for the crime control model to cause miscarriages of justice. Specially in America after the 9/11 terrorist attack the government has taken measures to prevent crimes as much as possible. The 9/11 attack not only influenced the government but influence the society to look at people an a suspicious way.For example after the 9/11 attack a muslim person, with his beard and his dress code, walks in the street with a bag on his hand or back, people look at him as if he is a terrorist with a bomb. This view of society should change for it is society that subjects the police and the government to undue pressure. In 2005 the terrorist attack in London (7/7) killed 56 people and 700 were injured. This was the largest and deadliest terrorist attack in London in history. It is clear that law enforcement agencies powers have increases with the statutes that have been implemented.The Terrorist Act 200 created a power to carry out blanket stop and searches. The Anti- Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001 introduced new powers for the Treasury to freeze terrorist funds and control orders on terrorist suspects can be imposed under the Terrorism Act 2005. The Terrorist Act 2006 gives police the power to detain terrorist suspects up to 28 days. Not only the acts gave the police powers but it always helped them misuse it. The Police Reform Act 202 supplements existing police powers which follow the established trend towards broadening powers of law enforcement agencies and diluting the safeguards for the susp ect.The ‘war on terror’ is now a common feature of crime prevention and detection in United Kingdom. Police appear to tour the streets in far greater numbers than they did prior to 9/11 and 7/7 attacks. More over there is an issue as to an ethnic minority in the law enforcement agencies. Local communities, where those being policed have felt for some years that powers possessed by the police have become too intrusive and are being used in a discriminatory way to target particular groups within the community.Research has shown that that Black and Asian people are more likely to be stopped under the provisions of the Terrorism Act 2000 than white people. When police powers are increased for the protection of citizens from terrorist attack they need to be employed even more carefully to ensure that citizens do not become as vulnerable to the police as they do to the terrorist attack. However increased powers of policing maybe necessary to contain the threat of terror and t o ensure national security is maintained.Recent cases have showed that where police and other agencies have made a mistake or has been misused their powers there has been a miscarriage of justice. In Dabilola Taylor’s case it was observed how lack of techniques and skills on the part of the investigating officers resulted in bringing to justice who killed Dabilola. In Stephen Lawrence case it was proved that there was racism in the police force. In Confait it was revealed that the conviction based on confession had been made subject to oppression. JeanCharles de Menezes was shot by the Metropolitan Police armed forces who believed he was a terrorist but later found out he was not. Moreover the changes that have been taken place within the statutes also may cause a miscarriage of justice. In Sam Hallam’s case the witness’s evidence was not inconsistent with the earlier evidence. The long standing rule at common law was that where a witness’s testimony in c ourt was inconsistent with a previous statement, it could not be treated as evidence as to the truth of its contents. Juries could not take account of the contents of such statements in reaching their verdict.This rule was changed by section 119 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 which now allows previous inconsistent statements to be admitted in evidence. Reforms and recommendations have been implemented to reduce the rate of crime and not let an innocent person be guilty of a crime he never committed. The Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996 came into force The CCRC is charged with reviewing convictions and sentences referring them to the appropriate court if it finds a â€Å"real possibility† that the court will judge a conviction unsafe or a sentence excessive.The CCRC covers England Wales and Northern Ireland and receive almost 1000 new applications each year. One could say that the implementation of the CCRC has been a big impact because it gives the proper resu lt. The CCRC first review was that of Derek Bentley where the Court of Appeal quashed the conviction unsafe, which was a victory for the commission but not for Derek Bentley, who was hung way back in 1953. The commissions do produce good result but the fact is that it takes a long time to deliver the goods.Many reforms have been implemented in recent years have eliminated or significantly reduced the number of wrongful convictions arising as a result of or permitted because of lax procedures, notably Police and Criminal Evidence Act and the rules on the disclosure of evidence by the Crown. According to Roskill report crime control strategies tend to stress towards The English System has been charactarised in some ways by the move from crime control to due process over the last 15-20 years. It is notable that the society wants to be free of crime and also they need their liberties to be protected but it is hard thing to achieve.All of human activity, the criminal justice included is imperfect and sadly justice will not always prevail. Some of the causes are beyond the criminal justice agencies or even the content of procedural rules and substantive law. As the cases show the crime control model does causes more miscarriage of justices. Therefore it is rightly to conclude that a criminal justice system characterized by an emphasis on crime control rather than due process will inevitably produce miscarriages of justice.