Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Analyzing the Movie Avatar Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Analyzing the Movie Avatar - Term Paper Example From Alien presentation to the grand military, from racial issues to excessive use of cigarettes, the movie has faced criticism on various topics. In short, Avatar is not only a manifestation but also an influence on the contemporary society. Starring Zoe Saldana, Sam Worthington, Sigourney Weaver, Michelle Rodriguez, Giovanni Ribisi, Joel David Moore, CCH Pounder, Peter Mensah, Laz Alonso, Wes Studi, Stephan Lang and Matt Gerald, this movie is a full time entertainment for its viewers for the span of two and a half hours. Synopsis of the Movie Avatar happens in the imaginary world of Pandora, which is created by James Cameron using digital hi-tech methods, which is occupied by incredible living beings and a local race of blue aliens named as Na’vi. The movie has been present in three dimensions which is a relatively new technology but the use of the 3D technology has been done without novelty. Twentieth Century Fox together with James Cameron, have made a movie which is in fa ct an experience, which cannot be pirated. A relatively large number of audiences are paying extra to watch the movie in 3D even numerous times on a monolithic IMAX screen. (Jesser. 152) The imaginary world of Avatar is somewhat evocative of imaginary virtual spaces like the second life, in both situations the people make use of avatars to go to the space, live there and act in an imaginary world. Avatar takes a step forward, and is able to fully transmit his consciousness into his own secondary living being, disposing off his weak and disabled body in the last moments of the movie. The association between the body and the avatar, the real and the imaginary spaces, is depicted in the movie although the avatars and the humans occupy the same planes of existence. Cameron has depicted a variety of styles and genres in the movie. It is no doubt an idea of post-colonialism: it portrays the Na’vi as the harmless and respectful population, while the humans are exposed as the corpora te military that leave their dying planet earth to excavate the precious resources of Pandora. The movie has presented an anti-war concept portraying the soldiers as cruel and brutal people who only aim to chase the company dollar. All soldiers are males except for a female pilot, who rejects the violent actions against the native population of the Na’vi. Many critiques have not mentioned the topic of gender in the movie but it is worth mentioning. Jake Sully is the main character of the movie who is a Marine. Because of his protagonist status, and that of his avatar, he is shown to negotiate between the masculine corporate structure and the feminine sphere of nature and science. The prominent scientist, played by Sigourney Weaver, is a biologist who is interested to have the samples from Pandora. Many critiques have attacked less relevantly on her cigarettes. She interacts with the natives to learn more about them in contrast to Sully, who approaches the world in his own nai ve and playful way. A female Na’vi acts like his guide in the film who guides him through the world. Sully and his avatar are soon introduced to the tribe of the Na’vi and promptly become the most competent of them. This plot is somewhat the reminiscent of the movies like â€Å"The last Samurai† and â€Å"Dances with Wolves†. (Wilhelm. 45) This kind of narrative is also considered to have the â€Å"white savior† theme, in which a dominant race member, often not

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Art of Sacrifice Essay Example for Free

The Art of Sacrifice Essay Sacrifice, the concept of giving up something valuable as a means of gaining more desirable things or preventing evil, is a fascinating art that has long intrigued humankind. In particular, two American texts have captured the essence of it , The Great Gatsby by F.S. Fitzgerald and the 1999 movie American Beauty directed by Sam Mendes. Both texts closely explore the responsibility of an individuals relationship with his or her society for the sacrifices the individual makes; from the disillusionment of the American Dream to how the characters are affected or destroyed by it. In the world of Jay Gatsby and Lester Burnham, ideals and values are defined by their society. More specifically, theirs is a consumer-driven society, resulting in false values which place importance on materialism and hedonism, disregarding morality and spirituality. In The Great Gatsby, these values are embodied through the juxtaposition and repetition of West and East. The Mid-West of America and West Egg, where Nick and Gatsby originate and inhabit, represent moral integrity, spirituality and innocence in contrast to the East Coast of America and East Egg, where the Buchanans live, which are full of self-indulgence, material wealth and moral decadence. The function of the characters is to enhance these values depending on where they come from, Mid-Western Nick for an example is a self-described moral person (I am one of the few honest people that I have ever known) but Tom Buchanan from the East is portrayed as a ruthless, racist womanizer who is careless in using and letting other people clean up the mess [he] had made. Similarly, the opening scene in American Beauty is of a high-angle pan across a picturesque suburb and then a cut to an equally picturesque large house with a neat lawn and beautiful rose beds. This quickly highlights the concept of a social ideal to strive for, as Lester Burnhams house is portrayed as the epitome of American homes with its perfect white walls and bright red door, and it is promptly linked to consumerism through the means of his wife Carolyn, who is a competitive real estate agent she sells this American Dream, leading to the social notion that if you have money, then you can have anything. All the se techniques are used to emphasize the major role of society in defining social values and aspirations. Therefore the individual, in an attempt to gain happiness and fulfillment, will strive for the values that society imposes. They adopt the social ideals and then make sacrifices in order to achieve them. Since the first glimpse of Carolyn cultivating a perfect red rose in American Beauty, it has become the symbol for her. Like the outwardly perfect rose, she is seen as the modern-age successful businesswoman who has it all the perfect family, the perfect house, the perfect job, all reflecting her philosophy of in order to be successful, one must maintain an image of success at all times. However, like these perfect roses, she has no scent thus no soul, and instead she uses the roses as a substitute for genuine emotion and affection. The starkest example is found in the first Burnham dinner scene where the closest thing to warmth comes from the scarlet color of the centerpiece roses as everything else in the frame, Carolyns family included, are cold and sombre due to the predominance of shadows, blue hues and lack of friendly conversation. In this way, she sacrifices real feelings for surface appearances. This makes her similar to Daisy in The Great Gatsby who, in choosing Tom over Gatsby twice, makes the sacrifice of love for social status and material possession. She endures Toms blatant infidelities to achieve the comfort and respectability that the consumer-driven and superficial society demands and like Carolyn, places emphasis on outwards appearance with her wish that her daughter would be a fool thats the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool. Even Gatsbys sense of ideal is no more or no less than which his society can offer him. Everything about Jay Gatsby is based on what James Gatz believes that society would find attractive as he does not enjoy his own wild parties, which shows that he does this for the sake of a socially accepted image rather than personal taste, that he is the advertisement of a man not the actual man himself. Indeed Gatsby adopts societys false values and he uses other mens desires as his standard of value a reason why he found Daisy so appealing in the first place, many men had already loved Daisy it increased her value in his eyes. However it must be noted that not all characters are like the aforementioned in their sacrifices, as no matter what the society dictates the ability to choose still lies in the power of the individual. While society may have itsb  guidelines of social acceptability, it is up to the individual whether or not to follow the guidelines. Nick, the voice of The Great Gatsby, is initially attracted to the wealth and glamor of the East but upon realizing that it creates a frantic, aimless lifestyle without substance nor spirituality, rejects it in the end. This milestone is marked by Nicks return to the Mid-West, which is symbolic of his rejection of the superficiality, materialism and amoral disposition of the East and his embracement of the traditional, wholesome values of the Mid-West. In American Beauty, Lesters encounter and resultant obsession with Angela makes him realize the emptiness of his life and he remembers the things he wants again, I feel like Ive been in a coma for about twenty years, and Im just waking up. He then sacrifices and rejects social expectations for his own happiness as he sees the illusion of the American Dream and how his family has lost their way in attempting to follow it. One of the ways Lester tries to capture the remembered joy of his youth is through the purchase of a sports car, a 1970 Pontiac Firebird. The car that I always wanted and now I have it. I rule! The Firebird is a symbol of his rebellion against suburban expectations and also one of power at the beginning of the film, Carolyn drives Lester everywhere, conveying his lack of drive, but with the Firebird, he drives himself to places he is in control of his own life once more. This echoes the power that all individuals have in making their own choices in life. Yet the choices that an individual makes reflect the relationship between him or her and their society. How the individual perceives the nature of their society is displayed in their choice of sacrifice, and it is also synonymous with the amount of control left in themselves that is not handed over to society. Carolyn, who is the embodiment of American materialism, has literally sold her soul for it, that is given up all her power and individuality to social expectations. She sacrifices morality and principle for success, and is preoccupied with maintaining this image of success with her expensive house and immaculate rose garden. Indeed, in the midst of an intimate moment with Lester, she stops it because of her fear of spilling beer on a four thousand dollar sofa upholstered in Italian silk which shows the extent to which she esteems materialism and societys values over her own  desires. In contrast, her daughter Jane is able to see what is truly important and rejects the society she lives in, as evident in her choice of unattractive clothes which are predominantly black the color of teenage rebellion. Hence she sacrifices the values of her family for her own values and she maintains her uniqueness and inner beauty. This is seen first dinner scene where Janes face in lit up by the candles whilst her parents faces are in the shadows. The light implies a halo around Jane and makes her a spiritually more worthy character than her parents, a beauty that the boy-next-door Ricky does not miss. In the The Great Gatsby, Gatsby unwittingly entraps himself to an endless pattern of imitation for he has allowed society to take over him, stripping him bare of individuality apart from his dream. Therefore, because he finds social acceptance so vital in winning the approval of Daisy, he sacrifices anything undesirable which is everything about poor Jimmy Gatz. He turns himself into the wealthy Jay Gatsby, a Platonic conception of himself and in fabricating his personal history and constructing an ideal image out of magazines, Gatsby loses his real self. While his dream may be pure and redeemable, he bases it on social superficial values and materialism which means that when the dream is destroyed and he fails to attain Daisy, he is already spiritually dead for all his superficiality becomes insignificant and pointless. In the final moments of his life, Nick envisions Gatsby realizing the hollowness of his life, his lack of true self, having lost along the path to his dream, a new world, material without being real, where poor ghosts, breathing dreams like air. The word choice of ghosts is significant for that is what Gatsby really has become, for he is simply an actor with no true body or identity of his own, having lived his life according to societys values not his own. Therefore the relationship between an individual and society is an important determent in the extent of sacrifices they make. In the end, it is the relationship between the individual and his or her society which is ultimately responsible for the sacrifices he or she makes. Separately, the society and individual make up only two influences, and are not the actual causes of the sacrifice the society defines values and dreams, of which the individual has the choice to try and strive for. Rather it is the complex dynamics between the two that triggers the sacrifice.  Individuals who adhere to and revere social standards will make the greatest sacrifices to achieve socially orientated goals. If the goals are unworthy or false, the individual may however lose themselves spiritually along the way. But individuals who rebel against society and oppose social values will consider those goals as undeserving and their sacrifices for it will be little to none. Indeed, these individuals will sacrifice social expectations for personal happiness and values instead. Through the characters in The Great Gatsby and American Beauty, Sam Mendes and F.S. Fitzgerald seem to imply that this latter way is better and yields more fruitful results. Bibliography: Commager, Henry Steele. The American Mind: An Interpretation of American Thought and Character Since the 1880s. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1950. The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribners, 1925; New York: Cambridge UP, 1991. Novel.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

On the Road Essay: The Motif of Inadequacy of the Language

The Motif of Inadequacy of the Language in On the Road  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   Henry Glass, a kid fresh out of a penitentiary in Indiana who takes a bus to Denver with Sal Paradise, tells him about his brush with the Bible in jail, and then explains the dangers of the phenomenon of signification (I firmly believe that Kerouac intended no deconstructionist subtext in the passage; nor is it likely to be an neo-Marxist attempt to explicate the class conflict between the signifiers and the signified): Anybody that's leaving jail soon and starts talking about his release date is 'signifying' to the other fellas that have to stay. We will take him by the neck and say, 'Don't signify with me!' Bad thing, to signify--y'hear me? (256) The use of the learned word by an eighteen year old jail-bird is truly funny. The comic effect here is based on the discrepancy between the standard meaning and contextual use of the word "to signify." There is a number of episodes in the novel with the same kind of humor: in the opening chapter of the novel, which describes his first visit to New York, Dean comes up with some absolutely moronic tirades. E.g., talking to Marilou, he mentions the necessity to "postpone all those leftover things concerning our personal lovethings and at once begin thinking of specific workplans. . ." (Kerouac 5). Or, when asked directly by Sal, whether he needed to con him for a place to stay, he starts talking about "Shopenhauer's dichotomy inwardly realized" (ibid.).    Dean's (mis)use of language can be somewhat redeemed by his intellectual virginity and his genuine desire to be like his high-browed friend; indeed, being earnest is important, and can excuse almost anything. But what should one think about the way Carl... ...rist--the heroes of the generation--never published (Krupat 407). Neither did Neil Cassidy, the silent genius behind the movement; but he by the example of his life provided the ideal which made Kerouac's gospel true.       Works Cited Ashida, Margaret E. "Frog's and Frozen Zen." Prairie Schooner 34 (1960): 199-206. Blackburn, William. "Han Shan Gets Drunk with the Butchers: Kerouac's Buddhism in On the Road, The Dharma Bums, and Desolation Angels." Literature East and West 21.1-4 (1977): 9-22. Suzuki, D.T. An introduction to Zen Buddhism. Ed. Christmas Humphreys; fwd. C.G. Jung. London: Rider, 1983. Kerouac, Jack. On the Road. Ed. Scott Donaldson. New York: Penguin, 1979. Krupat, Arnold. "Dean Moriarty as Saintly Hero." On the Road. Text and Criticism. By Jack Kerouac. Ed.Scott Donaldson. New York: Penguin, 1979. 397-411.      

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Primo Levis Survival in Auschwitz Essay -- Primo Levi Survival Auschw

Primo Levi's Survival in Auschwitz Reading the novel Survival in Auschwitz by author Primo Levi leads one to wonder whether his survival is attributed to his indefinite will to survive or a very subservient streak of luck. Throughout the novel, he is time and again spared from the fate that supposedly lies ahead of all inhabitants of the death camp at Auschwitz. Whether it was falling ill at the most convenient times or coming in contact with prisoners who had a compassionate, albeit uncommon, disposition, it would seem as though the Gods were always smiling upon him. Although throughout the novel primo is characterized as a very willing and competent individual, one can not say that his personality or his training as a chemist were the sole factors of his survival. For the purposes of this essay, it is necessary to further address the possibility that maybe Primo Levi was just a lucky guy. The very first lines of the novel support without a doubt the fact that even Levi (Hà ¤ftlinge # 174517) himself is aware of the capacity that luck plays in his life. He begins the novel with the phrase â€Å"It was my good fortune to be deported to Auschwitz only in 1944, that is, after the German government had decided, owing to the growing scarcity of labour, to lengthen the average lifespan of the prisoners destined for elimi- nation† (Levi 9). So, had he been captured prior to 1944, his story might not have been told. Seeing as life in Monowitz (aka Buna or the Là ¤ger) was particularly brutal upon his arrival, one can only imagine the conditions that existed before the Nazi war machine experienced its labor shortage. When compelled to consider the conditions in which Levi was forced to live, it is clear to see that the will to survive must be complemented by another factor, as this will alone is not at all strong enough to sustain life. Not only are the authority figures brutish and sadistic, but the code among the prisoners themselves is even more cutthroat. In addition, the â€Å"cuisine† is terrible and is summed up in the following passage: â€Å"...every two or three hours we have to get up to discharge ourselves of the great dose of water which during the day we are forced to absorb in the form of soup in order to satisfy our hunger†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Levi 61). Furthermore, the camp is arranged in a hierarchical system with each group of prisoners having corresponding... ...urvivors, how fortunate was he to be among them! Primo Levi’s voice in this novel is so emotionless, that one is forced to jettison all biases regarding the Holocaust until completion of the novel. He does not concern himself with how the reader will look at his role in the story he tells; it is his story, thus the reader need only read and formulate their own conclusions. Because his is the story that so many will never get the chance to tell. He comes off as the quiet submissive type, yet underneath this faà §ade is a very perceptive and clever human being. In fact, the saying â€Å"still waters run deep† just about sums up Levi’s personality. Recalling what was just written of Levi’s personality, it was premature to say that pure luck was the only guiding force in Levi’s survival; some credit must be given to the individual also. So it is of utmost importance to mention that his determination to survive and to provide an accurate, albeit, de tailed account of what he had endured was also a major factor in Primo Levi’s Survival in Auschwitz. Works Cited Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault onHumanity. Trans. Stuart Woolf. New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1987.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Tagore’s Gitanjali

From my LP class days, I have heard of Tagore. The loud speaker from the local church used to play songs took from this great book in the early morning. I used to tell the story of ‘golden grain of corn’. Recently, I was reading Kahlil Gibran and saw that his books are ‘inspired’ by Tagore. I thought, ‘enough is enough†¦here I am determined to read ‘Gitanjali’ first, before reading its further ‘inspirations’. And the travel was beautiful! Tagore was born in a very Rich family but he was a child without freedom. A prison View next photo er in his own house, â€Å" The child who is decked with prince’s robes and who have jeweled chains round his neck loses all pleasure in his play; his dress hampers him at every step† Gitanjali VIII (VIII). â€Å" O fool, to try to carry thyself upon thy own shoulders! O beggar, to come to beg at thy own door! † (IX) Such a childhood Tagore had to live and no wonder, he found his happiness and god’s presence with light and flowers â€Å" The light of thy music illuminates the world. The life breath of thy music runs from sky to sky † (III) â€Å" Pluck this little flower and take it. Delay not! I fear lest it droop and drop into the dust†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Though its colour be not deep and its smell be faint, use this flower in thy service and pluck it while there is TIME †. (VI) â€Å" Light, oh, where is the light? Kindle it with the burning fire of desire! .. † (XXVII). The burning desire in Tagore prayed for strength. The basis of prayer is hope. â€Å" †¦Give me the strength lightly to bear my joys and sorrows; †¦. to make my love fruitful in service†¦. never to disown the poor or bend my knees before insolent might†¦.. to raise my mind high above daily trifles. And give me the strength to surrender my strength to thy will with love. † (XXXVI) â€Å" That I want thee, only thee – let my heart repeat without end. † ( XXXVIII ) â€Å"When desire blinds the mind with delusion and dust, O thou holy one, thou wakeful, come with thy light and thy thunder †. (XXXIX) â€Å" Life of my life, I shall ever try to keep my body pure, knowing that thy living touch is upon my limbs†¦. thou art that truth which has kindled the light of reason in my mind†¦. drive all evils away from my heart and keep my love in FLOWER, knowing that thou hast thy seat in the inmost shrine of my heart. And it shall be my endeavour to reveal thee in my actions knowing it is thy power gives me strength to act . † ( IV ). â€Å" Has not the WORD come to you that the flower is reigning in splendour among thorns? Wake, oh, awaken! Let not the time pass in vein! At the end of the stony path, in the country of virgin SOLITUDE, my friend is sitting all alone. Deceive him not. Wake, oh, awaken! † (LV) The condition of the poor villagers who work in his farm land evoked Sympathy in him, at the same time he envisioned an India where the poor is empowered with light of knowledge. Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; Where knowledge is free; Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic WALLS; Where the words come out from the depth of truth; Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection; where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit; Where the mind is led forward by th ee into ever widening thought and action – Into that heaven of freedom, my father, let my country awake . † The God concept of Tagore is the basis of his philosophy. God in our self and our self in God. Our life is only a passage a boat journey with God. Throughout the songs the author is present and the presence of God too. For Tagore, his existence and strength is closely related to the presence of god. The last judgement toWaiting Virgins with lamps to ‘Maya’ to Vishnu with Sword – Tagore do not counter any existing religious believes but find correct meaning for it and free the God from the WALLS of temples and churches. He it is, the innermost one, who awakens my being with his deep hidden touches † (LXXII) He visualized God as a loving father, â€Å" When I bring to you coloured toys my child, why there is such a play of colours on clouds, on water, and why flowers are painted in tints † (LXII), â€Å" The sleep that flits on baby’s eyes – does anybody know from where it comes? † (LXI) â€Å" Thy eyes look down on my eyes, and my heart has touched thy feet . ( LIX ), â€Å" on the seashore of endless worlds is the great meeting children † ( LX ) The mystery of death always haunted Tagore. When he was young, his brother’s wife who was his first inspiration to start writing is dead. His mother, his lonely symbol of love and freedom too left him in his childhood. This forced Tagore to find the truth that â€Å" Life and Death as twin brothers †. He absorbed the pain in his life, â€Å" †¦shall I bear in my heart this honour of he burden of pain, this gift of thine † (LII) â€Å" It quivers like the one last response of life in extacy of PAIN at the final stroke of DEATH †. ( LIII ) The reason the ‘Mahabhagawata’ was written, why not to worry to die, Tagore visualize death as only a change of foam. â€Å" I dive into the depth of the ocean of foams, hoping to gain the perfect pearl of formless. No more sailing from harbour to harbour with this my weather-bea ten boat†¦. I am eager to die into the deathless † (C) Tagore is said to be taken inspiration from Kabir Das in his poems. I can see the life of Jesus been there with him as well as the style from psalms . A bit of Shakespeare is visible (to my limited knowledge of Shakespeare) as well. Great works like ‘ THE PROPHET ’, KAHLIL GIBRAN is highly inspired by GEETANJALI. And I can undoubtedly say that this is the best book which filled my heart, mind and soul with thoughts and the presence of God. A MUST NOT MISS BOOK . â€Å" Thy love which is greater than theirs, and thou keepest me free † (XXXII). The choice is ours.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Stephen R Covey’s book â€Å"The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People ®, which remains an international bestseller, has been in bookshelves for well over 15 years now and its relevance and practicability in today’s society cannot be watered down by the element of time.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reading through the book, the reader is swept in different emotions upon the realization of the myriad of truths contained therein. Stephen reaches out to the reader by drawing comparisons between his view of life and real-life situations. Indeed, the book is embedded by various anecdotes that drive the point home while grasping the reader’s attention. The book begins with a brief preface by the author on the dynamics of character ethics over personality ethics. According to him, the personality ethic has been too over emphasized and attempts to offer what he terms as â€Å"Aspirin-like† solutions, or quick fix solutions (Covey 8). He draws parallels with the principle that for one to harvest then he must so and consequently, effectiveness and success in life can only be inculcated into an individual through the steady development of a strong character ethic (Covey 10). The tone in the book is positive while cautious that being positive is not enough for one to achieve effectiveness. He thus calls for a paradigm shift (Adapted from Thomas Kuhn’s book) from focus on a circle of concern to a circle of influence. Covey as cited in (Covey 21) defines a circle of influence as a positive view of the world that has developed from a good character ethic that involves an individual looking for solutions from within and taking responsibility rather than apportioning blame to factors which one cannot change (circle of concern). He calls this the inside-out approach. One is indeed drawn into Cov ey’s description of an effective life through development of good habits brought by leading a goal oriented and disciplined life. He states the production (P) and productive capability (PC) theory where he suggests that for success to be achieved, we should focus on production and not the production capability (Covey 26). The book is a must read for all for its lessons are truly informative and life-changing.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Overview The book has four parts; the Preface, Private Victory, Public Victory and Renewal. The preface introduces Covey’s focus on character ethics Vis a Vis personality ethics. He explains the demerits of the latter while praising the former as good grounds for the development of a successful of effective life. He reiterates the importance of maturity, hard work and discipline as the key points towards a strong c haracter ethic. The Preface also highlights the various situations that people find themselves in and prescribes the book as a good foundation towards their solution. According to Covey, private victories refer to a situation where the individual has discovered himself/ herself and recognizes their independent will and power to change their lives. He calls upon individuals to be proactive and be resourceful while learning how to take initiative over their lives. Covey then draws a parallel between persons who focus on the negative side of life and terms then as reactionaries with persons who instead focus on issues within their control and attempt to make something out of them (Covey 34). Public victories have much to do with others. Covey cited in (Covey 95) calls for interdependence, communication and understanding among people so as to create synergistic gains in their lives. He advocates for listening, empathy and patience in one’s dealings with others and suggests that i ndividuals should only focus on a win-win situation where all parties mutually benefit. In Part 4 of the book, Covey states that the individual needs to nourish himself in a holistic manner; physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually. This he suggests enables the individual to realize synergy both intrinsic and extrinsic. What the book promises According to Covey cited in (Covey 30), the book will enable an individual have a deep knowledge of themselves. It then will create a desire for change in the individual to focus more on a value-based and goal oriented life.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It would instil in an individual a sense of identity, direction integrity and control over their lives thus making them successful and effective people. Finally, the book promises to heal and rebuild broken relationships by offering time-tes ted solutions to conflict. Private Victory As stated earlier, private victories refer to success or effectiveness at an individual level and focuses on what an individual can do to improve effectiveness. Be Proactive Covey begins this part by stating that self awareness is a quality that enables an individual to evaluate their actions and learn whether he/she is going in the right direction (Covey 32). He states that certain deterministic factors exist that affect our self esteem such as genetic, psychological and environmental factors which much have to do on the impact family and friends have on an individual’s self esteem. Being proactive means that an individual takes initiative and admits that they bear responsibility over their own lives independent of the so-called deterministic factors. He differentiates between being proactive and being reactive. He states that an individual can rise above stimulus and response unlike in animals thus preventing the person from having his/her life being determined by other people’s actions (Covey 32). Covey cited in (Covey 36) states that individuals should be resourceful and always ensure that they are in active control of their lives. He states that for one to be effective, one has to subordinate feelings for value which means that emotions should be suppressed to prevent the individual from going of their course. He also states that one should focus more on the circle of influence rather than that of concern while at the same time expanding the former through establishing the root causes of conflict and problems and solving them (Covey 39). Habit 1 is a good guide for individuals in daily life and its value cannot be supplanted. The need for people to take initiative in their own lives is intrinsic to problem solving and development of working relationships. However, Covey oversimplifies the issue of love by stating it as a â€Å"verb† and not an emotion thus asking for people to suppress  "love† emotions (Covey 38).Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Studies on the issue of love and even logic itself teach that the issue of love is much more complex and not a mere â€Å"verb†. Also, Covey does not show us how being proactive is a character ethic and not a personality issue. Nevertheless, habit 1 is practical and definitely a catalyst for effectiveness. Begin with the end in mind Covey cited in (Covey 46) starts this section by asking the reader to consider their death and draw from it, the legacy they would want to leave behind and begin to practice it in their daily lives. He states that the power of individuals to imagine can be a powerful tool for effectiveness where the person creates first in his mind then applies the creative imagination into real life. He states that mental creativity is superior to physical since a physical creation without a mental picture would be unsuccessful. Leadership is described here as directing efforts in the right place and is differentiated from management which is doing things in the right manner. Covey calls upon people to harness leadership by establishing where the effort is needed and to proceed to apply it. In business he likens leadership to acts like monitoring environmental change and customer buying habits and to ensure focus on them (Covey 48). He advises the reader to draft a personal mission statement from where he/she can refer to as a guide whenever a question of principle arises. He further states that the principles stated therein should be at the centre of the individual’s circle of influence which enables him/her to prioritize on those matters that are of real importance. He refers to them as matters in the second quadrant and are mainly issues based on value that act as a guide, security and power to the individual (Covey 60). Covey cited in (Covey 65) introduces the ‘brain-dominance’ theory where he states that we should strive to use the right side of the brain which is the perceptive and intuitive part more often. He sta tes that a balanced use of the whole brain gives rise to an effective individual. Roles and goals are then to be considered as part of the focus on the end result. The application suggestions stated under this habit are very helpful as they direct the individual to adopt concise goals and to remain focused in their endeavour to be successful or effective. However, the use of the brain-dominance test is more of personality than character and therefore Covey tends to stray from the initial topic which is to emphasize a strong character ethic. Put first things first Under this habit, Covey cited in (Covey 75) discusses certain aspects of goal setting and the sustenance of a good character ethic. He advises that the individual should practice self management, discipline, time management and goal setting. He states that time management need not be time based but results based since the former tends to bring in an element of routine and eliminates spontaneity which is a crucial part of li fe. According to Covey (Covey 77) the reader should endeavour to be oriented towards creating opportunities rather than being problem minded. He states that the focus on problems derails an individual’s effectiveness and prevents him from meeting set goals. The ability to say ‘no’ is also stated as a necessary part in the prioritizing of an individual’s needs (Covey 78). He adds that scheduling, day planning and delegation where possible all enable an individual to move from problem solving to opportunity utilization (Covey 82). Covey calls for steward delegation where the individual to whom the work is delegated is left to his own means to produce a result rather than gofer delegation where instructions are issued (Covey 86). He states that this is applicable to both the family and organizational setting. The habit attempts to bring focus into an individual’s discipline in meeting set goals and targets. Though it is more oriented towards organizati onal behaviour it can in some sense apply to relationships among family and friends. However, Covey does not suggest anything newer than the already available information on goal setting and priorities. Nevertheless, this does not signify that the need to put first things first is not important for effectiveness. Public Victory Think win-win Covey as cited in (Covey 93) begins this part by putting across an excellent theory of an emotional bank account. This account just like a bank account, involves deposits where an individual does good and positive acts towards others that enable him/her win their trust. Likewise, withdrawals are made from every demand or negative thing an individual does against the same people. He thus calls upon character that creates more deposits than withdrawals by suggesting that individuals understand others, pay attention even to little things, clarify other people’s expectations of them, show personal integrity and apologize when in the wrong. Fr om the above, Covey states that in any dealing, an individual should strive to produce a win-win situation which is palatable to both parties (Covey 103). Win-win situations differ from win-lose situations where competition produces a single winner while the others lose, lose-win situations (Covey 104) where one concedes defeat in order to achieve popularity or any other ulterior motive, lose-lose situations (Covey 105) where individuals prefer that no-one wins and win (Covey 106) situations where an individual doesn’t care about others’ predicaments. Covey cited in (Covey 109) states that to achieve a win-win situation, one should have integrity, maturity and an abundance mentality (where one believes that everyone can benefit). He advises that where a win-win situation is not applicable, it is better to have no deal (Covey 114). This habit is a good idea but its practicability is somewhat questionable. A win-win or no-deal situation is not always likely to produce po sitive results especially where one rejects a good deal because it is not win-win. Its application may be construed in a business sense as naive and may place the organization in a precarious situation. Seek first to understand then to be understood Empathetic communication is emphasized where one places himself in the situation of another so as to understand their point of view (Covey 121). It is differentiated from sympathy which usually does not yield understanding (Covey 122). Covey cited in (Covey 129) emphasizes that individuals develop good communication skills that involve listening, perception and consideration. He introduces the Greek method of ethos, pathos and logos where one establishes trust, empathizes then introduces logic as a means of negotiation and persuasion (Covey 130). This habit is also crucial to effectiveness and Covey hits the nail on the head on its importance and practicability. Communication is also vital not only in organizations but also in personal r elationships and good communication is nourishment for one’s relationships. However, Covey adapts the same overly positive thinking tone he rejects in the preface of the book. Positive thought does not always lead to positive reactions and Covey fails to capture situations where people prefer straightforwardness without involvement of emotion especially in business. Synergize Covey cited in (Covey 134) emphasizes on the importance of individuals working as one to produce positive results. Synergistic gains arise from creative cooperation and respectful communication. He states that though a conflict may arise where there are only two possible results, a third alternative exists and if followed through would generate synergy (Covey 139). Covey calls for the valuing of individual differences as a strength (Covey 142). The force field analysis refers to a situation of balance where an individual is held back by negative forces (Covey 143). Synergy from cooperation helps to break these forces. However good synergy may be effective, Covey again chooses to be overly positive and does not appreciate situations where no synergy can be created e.g. where one party is already biased or is malicious. Synergy would require both parties to be positive minded and while one can be, the other might not be and this is outside one’s circle of influence. Renewal Sharpen the saw To achieve effectiveness, the author suggests that we have to sharpen the saw which involves keeping ourselves in the right state of health and mind for us to meet the set goals and values in our mission statements (Covey 147). Covey states that the individual needs to maintain good spiritual, physical, mental and social/emotional balance. Such balance can be achieved through activities such as healthy eating, exercise, meditation, good music, reading, writing and ‘scripting’ others (Covey 148-155). The author also advocates for learning and committing oneself to positive activi ties while facilitating a paradigm shift or transition in their lives (Covey 162). This is all good for one to remain focussed and to be highly effective. However, the emphasis on the spiritual part and God may leave out people with different views on religion. Conclusion This book attempts to give the reader a good foothold in all areas of life. It is a holistic book and clearly Stephen Covey did set a high standard for other writers to follow in terms of universal appeal and simplistic truths. It is a good guide book and as the author himself suggests, should be read occasionally with the application parts being put into good use. The book may contain some inherent weaknesses as stipulated in my analysis; they are wide apart and mildly insignificant to the overall effect or message of the book. I would recommend the book as a must read for any individual who feels that they need direction and focus in life. Covey, Stephen. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful les sons in Personal Change. Franklin Covey Co, 1989. Print

Monday, October 21, 2019

What Dreams May Come Essays - What Dreams May Come, Free Essays

What Dreams May Come Essays - What Dreams May Come, Free Essays What Dreams May Come Many of us, people dont believe that there exists live after death. We think that this is not possible. People are just dying and they are living their bodies behind them, and leaving this world. Some of us believe in the reincarnation. We died, but we are born as a new human being. In the book What dreams may come there exist live after death- in heaven. The book tells about a men name Chris and his family. One day he was coming from the theater and three cars hit him, and he died. He woke up at the hospital. Before he died he heard the voices coming from a man. Those voices were saying to him to not fight . Then after a while he was dead. At first he didnt believe that this happened. When he saw his body lying on the hospital bed he knew that his journey in the world was finish. He didnt know what he was supposed to do. He was looking for his wife. He tried to find her and talk to her, but the only person that could see him or hear him was the person at the hospital that he couldnt recognize. He couldnt see exactly who the man was; he saw just his shadows. Chris was living his other live, live after death. He never knew that death is merely continuation at another level . After he died he realized that the life is not finish. The spirit lives just our bodies and it goes to heaven. Chris couldnt wait till his wife is going to join him. He believed that this would come soon, because he couldnt stop thinking about her. For everything in life theres a counterpart in afterlife Nothing can destroy the spirit. Chris was aware of that he went to the other side. He was patiently waiting for his wife. After some time he got the message from Albert that she is not going to join him, because he commit suicide. Suicide only participates a darker continuation of the some conditions from which escape was sought. A continuation under circumstances is so much more painful. He didnt want to believe that she is not coming there. The only way that they could be together was that he had to go to rescue her from that world. This was very hard to do, because many people tried to do it and they never came back. He got more luck, because he went there. The only problem that he had was that he couldnt find her. There was to many people that commit suicide. He was trying hard to find her and finally he did. He brought her memory back, because she didnt remember anything. Then they came back to the Summerland, and live happy ever after. There also exist the supernatural contact with spirits. In the book when Chris died his family was very sad. He went to his daughter room and he saw the letter that she was writing to her friend. She was telling about her parents and what they lived through. Chris tried to talk to her, without any respond. She couldnt hear anything, because she didnt knew that he was there. Chris didnt gave up and he was telling to her write Im still alive , he was repeating this all over and he made her write this note. She was very suprised when she saw this. At first she didnt knew what she suppose to do with this note, but then, she went to her mom trying to tell her that her father made her to write this note. When she enter the room, she saw her mother crying and she decided to not show her nothing. Then she decided that much happened and now was not good time to show it to her. She went back to her room, never telling her mother about that accident. After a little while Chris went to heaven. When he got there he was very suprised what he saw. Heaven was very nice place. He saw the same person that he saw at the hospital, but now he could see his face and the body correctly.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Depuis vs Il y a

Depuis vs Il y a The French temporal expressions depuis and il y a have distinctly different meanings and uses, yet they often present difficulties for French students. Here is a detailed explanation and comparison of depuis and il y a to help you clearly understand the difference once and for all. Depuis Depuis, meaning for or since, can be used in the present or past in order to express an action that began in the past and continued to the temporal reference point used in the sentence: either the present or some point in the past. Depuis is thus used for actions that were incomplete at the referenced time, and can refer to two different kinds of time: 1) When followed by a period of time, depuis indicates the duration of an action and is equivalent to have been -ing (perfect progressive) for*   Ã‚  Ã‚  Nous attendons depuis une heure.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Weve been waiting for an hour.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Il parle depuis 5 minutes.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hes been speaking for 5 minutes.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Il travaillait depuis 10 jours quand je lai vu.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hed been working for 10 days when I saw him.2) When followed by an event or point in time, depuis indicates the start time of an action and is translated in English by have -en/-ed (perfect tense) since/for  Ã‚  Ã‚  Je suis malade depuis mon arrivà ©e.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ive been sick since I got here.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Il à ©tait fà ¢chà © depuis lannonce, mais maintenant...  Ã‚  Ã‚  He had been angry since the announcement, but now...  Ã‚  Ã‚  Depuis hier, je suis dà ©primà ©e.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ive been depressed since yesterday.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Il ne fume pas depuis un an.  Ã‚  Ã‚  He hasnt smoked for a year. Il y a Il y a means ago and can only be used for things that are already completed. The verb in the sentence must be in the past and il y a must be followed by some reference to time.**  Ã‚  Ã‚  Je suis arrivà ©e il y a une heure.  Ã‚  Ã‚  I arrived an hour ago.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Il a parlà © il y a 5 minutes.  Ã‚  Ã‚  He spoke 5 minutes ago.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Il a travaillà © il y a 10 jours.  Ã‚  Ã‚  He worked 10 days ago.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jà ©tais malade il y a une semaine.  Ã‚  Ã‚  I was sick a week ago.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Il y a deux jours, jai vu un chat noir.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Two days ago, I saw a black cat.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jai dà ©mà ©nagà © ici il y a longtemps.  Ã‚  Ã‚  I moved here a long time ago.*Il y a ... que, à §a fait ... que , and voil ... que are informal equivalents for the first use of depuis  - they mean have been doing for a certain amount of time.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Il y a cinq ans que jhabite ici.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ive been living here for five years.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ãƒâ€¡a fait deux heures que nous a ttendons.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Weve been waiting for two hours.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Voil six mois que je travaille avec Marc.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ive been working with Marc for six months.**Voil can also replace il y a, informally.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Il est parti voil deux heures.  Ã‚  Ã‚  He left two hours ago. Summary Ago Have -ed for/since Have been -ing for Depuis vs. Il y a il y a depuis depuis Informal synonyms voil il y a que, a fait que, voil que French verb tense past present or past present Reference to time period of time point in time period of time Type of action completed continuing continuing

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Analyzing a Poem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Analyzing a Poem - Essay Example Thus, the basic journey of the poem can be considered to be that of coming of age of the adolescent as they move from dependent childhood to independent adulthood. It can also be considered a poem of discovery as the person discovers their own voice. In either case, the speaker of the poem takes on an exterior role, speaking to the actor rather than taking part in the action itself yet still having a knowledge of the events that have occurred. Within the poem, it is suggested that the person must have tried to leave before but couldn’t. This is heard in the voices crying out and the trembling of the house, putting in mind the way that older people tend to live vicariously through their children. The poet also indicates that â€Å"it was already late / enough, and a wild night, / and the road full of fallen / branches and stones† (19-22). The traveler has taken the advice that was shouted out before, gaining them nothing but the ability to recognize bad advice when they hear it. The road is not sunny and promising because of the time wasted, they have missed some of their opportunities. However, this time they were able to break through the boundaries that kept them home before, prompting the speaker to recount what the traveler has overcome and providing a comforting, reassuring voice that the traveler has done the right thing for themselves. The poem is not divided along a simple rhyme scheme pattern or even along structured metrical rhythm. Instead, its first two divisions are indicated by the words â€Å"you knew what you had to do,† appearing in the first lines as well as line 13. In the first of these sections, the poet illustrates the clinging nature of the people of the house. They cling to the traveler through guilt and through pity. The second section talks about the desperate emotional struggle of the traveler in trying to take his leave. While the third section ends with the repetition of the key phrase

Friday, October 18, 2019

Racism in Science Fiction Movies Research Paper

Racism in Science Fiction Movies - Research Paper Example The main thesis behind District 9 is that it is basic human nature to be racist. If we know that we are dominant or can dominate, we tend to exploit the weak. The movie shows the danger of this nature through its main character, story, slums, etc. The thesis behind Brother from another Planet is that as a result of racism precious human talented and skills are being wasted. This is shown in them movie through the main protagonist who has special talents but they go unutilized as a result of racism. Finally, the thesis behind Starship Troopers is that racism only leads to destruction. Racism is depicted in an entirely different form in the movie that we do not notice easily. It is the practice of racism by a state on its citizens. Each of the three movies try to depict that racism inevitably leads to loss. Brother from another Planet revolves around an alien who crash lands on earth. The alien ends up in New York City. The alien is a slave who is trying to escape from intergalactic bounty hunters whose job is to recapture slaves who have escaped. The alien resembles an African American male and is mute. The alien has some extraterrestrial powers such as telekinetic powers. The alien has extremely large feet which he hides. The alien discovers that his color tone is a major disadvantage here. The movie is a social commentary on life in the society of the time. The movie shows how the racial divide still exists in a city like New York. It addresses issues such as differences between social classes and racism. One of the main criticisms about the movie is that main protagonist who is an alien slave is shown as an African American and the bounty hunters are whites. To some extent it might be trying to reflect the hard realities of the society. It shows that whites are considered superior even in the context of extra-terrestrials and blacks are treated as inferior.

Health improvement in nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Health improvement in nursing - Essay Example In order to improve health in nursing, nurses require collaboration with other different bodies, such as governments, the local communities, as well as their patients.Nurses utilize various strategies, which will promote positive health and well-being of individuals. Therefore, nurses are core in health improvement, and these are committed to their patients and aim at improving the health status of their patients, including those who suffer from long-term conditions. Nurses also provide care to the marginalized in society, and participate in a variety of public health programmes. Nonetheless, different people today need health improvement, but sometimes might lack to access it. Therefore, this paper will focus on overweight people with a BMI of 25-30kg kg/m2.Overweight people need health improvement and promotion, mainly because, today this is a worrying health issue, as a great number of people are overweight. The large number of overweight people is therefore, an indication that en ough efforts have not been adopted to address this health issue. In order to improve health for this group of people, it is important to increase their awareness of sugar intake, as is an important aspect that is overlooked by most overweight people, while some lack reliable information about this. Diabetes is experienced today at a higher rate compared to past decades. When one is overweight, they are at risk of being diabetic. Therefore, the increased prevalence of diabetes shows that one of the root causes, which is excessive weight in people, has not been given the attention it needs for improvement. Globally, the prevalence of diabetes is expected to hit a high of 552 million people by the year 2030. In 2011, prevalence of diabetes stood at 366 million people (Diabetes UK 2011). On the other hand, the UK is one of the countries, which is registering increased cases of diabetes every year. In the year 1996, the number of people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK was 1.4 million. However, this number has increased to 2.9 million, and it is expected to reach 5 million in 2055. This therefore, makes diabetes to be one of the health challenges in the UK today (Diabetes UK 2011). In order to improve this case and promote good health of the people in the UK, it is crucial that information about diabetes, its cause and effects, and prevention be disseminated to the whole population, to increase their awareness so that they can adopt the correct preventive and control strategies (Diabetes UK 2011). The most prevalent diabetes type in the UK is Type 2 diabetes, which is highly associated with being overweight or obese. Initially, this affected people aged above 40 years, but today, this affects even young people and children (Public Health England 2013: London Health Improvement Board 2011). Nonetheless, the number of obese and overweight people in the UK keeps rising, thus the rise in the prevalence of diabetes (Diabetes UK 2011). Similarly, government records from the UK department of health show that in England, 61.3% of adults are overweight and obsess, in addition to 30% of children. Evidence also shows that overweight or

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Someone I Admire Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Someone I Admire - Essay Example Guglielmo was involved in a scandal called the Italian Navy Coherer Scandal; it is believed that he stole the work of Jagadish Chandra Bose, an Indian who is very renowned for his contribution in the field of Science. This happened because Jagadish Chandra Bose’s work could not be accepted because of the British rule, the British Administration made sure that his work never got published and it is very strongly believed that Guglielmo stole the work of Jagdish and came to the limelight. Guglielmo had a keen interest in Science and especially in Electricity right from the early years. During the time of Guglielmo the invention of the electromagnetic waves took place and this was invented by Heinrich Hertz. The death of Hertz threw more light upon his discoveries, and this further intrigued Guglielmo, who got very motivated and decided to invent something unseen by the world. He conducted experiments by setting up his own devices and material required to carry out the experiment . His main goal was to use radio waves to create wireless telegraphy. This meant that the transmission of the wireless messages got across without using any wires. The Development of the Invention  This was not a new subject that Guglielmo was working on, research had been already done on this subject, and he just utilized whatever had been researched about the subject. Guglielmo used many important parts in this experiment. Parts like oscillator, spark producing radio transmitters, a telegraph key were used in his experiments. Other researchers also used the spark-gap transmitters, but they could not get the transmission to cover a long range, the transmission usually covered a few hundred meters. The case was no different for Guglielmo; he also got limited transmission when he first attempted the experiment. But at a later stage he experimented outdoors, he increased the length of the transmitter and the radio antenna, which resulted in a very big success. The transmission impro ved drastically and he was able to transmit signals with a range of roughly about 1.5 kilometers. He concluded that he required funding to invent a device which could take this forward. He believed that this experiment would be very useful if it becomes an invention to the military personnel as they would be able to transmit signals easily. When he was close to inventing what he had dreamt of all his life, he realized that Italy was not the right place to be in. He moved to London along with his Mother at the age of 21 to pursue the invention. 1897 was the year when Guglielmo sent the first ever wireless communication and this was done over Sea. The approximate distance covered by the signal was about 6 kilometers; the message which he sent read â€Å"Are you ready†. This was a good enough invention to receive international attention; this work quickly caught the eye of the international people associated with the same field. â€Å"Marconi sailed to the United States at the invitation of the New York Herald

Compare and contrast the approaches that are available for analysing Essay

Compare and contrast the approaches that are available for analysing the project environment. How would a project manager use the outputs of this analysis - Essay Example Identify actors or factors that need special attention Develop strategies for increasing control or influence including formal and informal linkages Develop a plan to cope with potential problems caused by actors and factors Priority must be given to those especially characterized by medium or high dependency, medium or high risk, and medium or low control. The project environment may be defined as "the whole set of institutions, people and natural systems which surround the project and interact with it". The purpose of any analysis of the project environment is primarily to identify a list of factors that may have an impact on the successful conclusion of a project. They be classified contrastingly as follows (Bryant and White, 1982) - Stable/turbulent - Uniform/diverse - Clustered/random - Resource-munificent/resource-scarce Approaches to analyzing the Project Environment Descriptive Model Use of the Descriptive Model is helpful for the Manager who wishes to categorise the range of dimensions within the project environment. An appropriate set of dimensions comprises: - The natural environment - The built environment - The financial environment - The social environment - The political environment It may be seen that these link to the capitals of the sustainable livelihoods framework, though there are also important differences. Hierarchical Model If the analysis has involved making judgments not just about what is important in the project environment but also at what level then the Hierarchical Model is appropriate. This divides the project environment into local, regional and national (or international) factors, each of which may need different responses. Hierarchical models provide a way of examining...It will also help to formulate strategies and to decide whether the strategies devised to control risk are cost-effective. A top priority for any Project Manager will be to make a complete list of the variables that can affect project performance. S/he must then try to anticipate which (if any) may lead to project failure. It is important to understand that these factors may not be clear and/or obvious; careful analysis of the full context within which the project is being undertaken (its "environment") is required. The project environment may be defined as "the whole set of institutions, people and natural systems which surround the project and interact with it". The purpose of any analysis of the project environment is primarily to identify a list of factors that may have an impact on the successful conclusion of a project. If the analysis has involved making judgments not just about what is important in the project environment but also at what level then the Hierarchical Model is appropriate. This divides the project environment into local, regional and national (or international) factors, each of which may need different responses. Hierarchical models provide a way of examining differences across different parameters.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Someone I Admire Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Someone I Admire - Essay Example Guglielmo was involved in a scandal called the Italian Navy Coherer Scandal; it is believed that he stole the work of Jagadish Chandra Bose, an Indian who is very renowned for his contribution in the field of Science. This happened because Jagadish Chandra Bose’s work could not be accepted because of the British rule, the British Administration made sure that his work never got published and it is very strongly believed that Guglielmo stole the work of Jagdish and came to the limelight. Guglielmo had a keen interest in Science and especially in Electricity right from the early years. During the time of Guglielmo the invention of the electromagnetic waves took place and this was invented by Heinrich Hertz. The death of Hertz threw more light upon his discoveries, and this further intrigued Guglielmo, who got very motivated and decided to invent something unseen by the world. He conducted experiments by setting up his own devices and material required to carry out the experiment . His main goal was to use radio waves to create wireless telegraphy. This meant that the transmission of the wireless messages got across without using any wires. The Development of the Invention  This was not a new subject that Guglielmo was working on, research had been already done on this subject, and he just utilized whatever had been researched about the subject. Guglielmo used many important parts in this experiment. Parts like oscillator, spark producing radio transmitters, a telegraph key were used in his experiments. Other researchers also used the spark-gap transmitters, but they could not get the transmission to cover a long range, the transmission usually covered a few hundred meters. The case was no different for Guglielmo; he also got limited transmission when he first attempted the experiment. But at a later stage he experimented outdoors, he increased the length of the transmitter and the radio antenna, which resulted in a very big success. The transmission impro ved drastically and he was able to transmit signals with a range of roughly about 1.5 kilometers. He concluded that he required funding to invent a device which could take this forward. He believed that this experiment would be very useful if it becomes an invention to the military personnel as they would be able to transmit signals easily. When he was close to inventing what he had dreamt of all his life, he realized that Italy was not the right place to be in. He moved to London along with his Mother at the age of 21 to pursue the invention. 1897 was the year when Guglielmo sent the first ever wireless communication and this was done over Sea. The approximate distance covered by the signal was about 6 kilometers; the message which he sent read â€Å"Are you ready†. This was a good enough invention to receive international attention; this work quickly caught the eye of the international people associated with the same field. â€Å"Marconi sailed to the United States at the invitation of the New York Herald

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Family and social policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Family and social policy - Essay Example Throughout the eighties, they retained the plateau reached in divorce rates, and more than one-third of the marriages were likely to end in divorce. Focusing on these factors, Gittings (1993) argues that: 'There is no such thing as the family, and that no single form of the family has ever existed'. The impact of these changes has been perceptible for women at both ends of the childbearing years. In both age groups women have become less prone to be living as part of a married couple with children, and more prone to be either a lone parent, living alone or living as part of a childless couple. There has been a distinct shift for women from the role of spouse to the standing of the household head. Social and economic trends that have seen increased economic activity of women have conveyed these demographic developments. Though, socialists also distinguished eighties for the impact of economic recession and the rise of mass unemployment. These developments had a particular collision on families (mainly lone-parent families) and led to a threefold increase in the numbers of children living in poverty (Martin J, and Roberts C. 1984). In the death of a clear and wide-ranging model of family policy in Britain, response to demographic and social change has been incremental and sometimes contradictory. The family has increasingly become the center of political and public debate and disagreement. Attempts to persuade at times contrary objectives make any involvement in family policy exceedingly intricate.

Knitted fabrics Essay Example for Free

Knitted fabrics Essay Weft-knitting fabric is made from continuous lengths of yarn, which is fed across the width of the fabric by a series of needles. Weft knits can be unravelled and if a stitch is dropped it will run down the length of the fabric, so weft-knitting fabric cannot be cut like woven fabric. This kind of knitting produces soft, comfortable that has variable stretch, depending on the structure. Hand made weft knitting can be make one off designer products, such as jumpers or cushions industrial computer-controlled knitting machines produced around 90 per cent of jersey, rib and jacquard fabrics. Warp-knitting fabrics are made on straight or circular CAD/CAM knitting machines. Each loop of the fabric is fed by its own separate yarn, which is fed into the knitting zone parallel to the fabric selvedge. These loops interlock vertically, along the length of the fabric. Warp knits have some elasticity, do not ladder and cant be unravelled. Although they can be cut like woven fabrics, warp knits have a limited application for clothing being mainly used for swimwear leisure and underwear linings laces ribbons and trimmings they are also used for net curtains furnishing and bed linen. Warp knits are mainly used in industrial end- uses including geotextiles. This is the most used weave construction, which can provide endless design variation though the use of plain, thick, and thin, fancy and coloured yarns plain weave is strong firm, and hardwearing and is used for many types of fabrics and end-uses, i. e. calico, gingham, muslin. calico is plain weave low-cost cotton fabric, made in different weights and widths, suitable for experimental textiles work. A fashion designer will often use calico to make a prototype garment to help in the development of the flat pattern for a new design. Interior designers sometimes used calico foe making low-budget furnishing. Voile is a lightweight plain weave sheer fabric made from cotton, silk, rayon, nylon or worsted. It used for blouses, dresses, childrens wear, and curtains. Ripstop nylon is a high performance plain weave fabric in witch some of the warp and weft are doubled up at intervals in a warp and weft. Twill weave products fabric with diagonal lines witch generally run bottom left to top right on the fabric face. Weaving twills in different directions produces weave variations, such as herringbone or chevron. Twill weave drapes well and is one of the most used weave constructions, making fabrics such as gabardine or denim. Twill is used for a wide range of products such as jackets, suit, trousers and curtains. viyella is a 2/2 twill fabric woven from wool/cotton blend fibres in the warp and weft. Viyella fabrics are 55%wool 45%cotton and can have plain, checked or striped they are used for products such as shirts dresses and childrens wear.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Anti-viral and Anti-cancer Effect of Sea Cucumber Extracts

Anti-viral and Anti-cancer Effect of Sea Cucumber Extracts The Anti-viral and Anti-cancer effect of secondary metabolite extracts from sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota) in vitro Abstract Sea cucumber is used as food purposes and traditional medicine in Asia and Middle East society. In this scientific study we try to examine antiviral effect of organic extracts, obtained from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota species against HIV-1. For this reason, sea cucumber collected from 10-30 meters depths, around Larak Island. In order to extract, were used from methanol and diethyl ether solvents. All obtained extracts concentrated by rotary evaporator in 40  ° C and then changed to lyophilized powder by vacuum freeze dryer. After that, potential antiviral effect of each extracts on HIV-1 was investigated. The results of this experiments showed that all extracts in some concentrations were able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1. IC50 for their was variable between 5.03  ± 1.90  µg/ml until 337.60  ± 1.34  µg/ml . but cytotoxic effect of all extracts in host cell were also many and CC50 for their was variable between 5.11  ± 1.89  µg/ml until 56.27  ± 1.54  µg/ml. results shown detail ether body wall extract have highest antiviral effect and also it was relatively less cytotoxic effect. 2.79 TI for this extract was shown, it has potential to inhibit HIV-1 after identify and extract effective substances. For survey anti-cancer probably effect have used XTT assay. The results of this experiment showed, all different extracts could be able to prevent Human carcinoma oral epidermoid cells (KB) in some concentration. But also, they had strong cytotoxic effect on normal cell line (HEK293T). Totaly between all different extracts, body wall diethyl ether extract had less cytotoxic effect on normal cells and with 2.46 TI index, showed rather anticancer activitythan other extract. Introduction In recent years, many bioactive compounds identify and derived from various marine organisms. Searches for discover new metabolites led to isolated 10,000 new combination from marine animals. Many of these compounds are related to medicine and pharmacy. This compounds and natural products have been source of materials that have medicine effects (Faulkner, 1996). These bioactive compounds isolated from various marine organisms, including Corals, crabs, seaweeds, Echinoderms, fishes, sponges and etc. Sea cucumbers belong to the phylum Echinodermata, meaning that, they are spiny-skinned, under the class Holothuridea. They are found throughout the nearshore coral reef environment and are also found in the deepest parts of the ocean. Sea cucumbers play an important role in reef recycling, gathering organic detritus and bacteria from the water or sand for food. These particles are digested by the animals in order to extract nutrients, a process that helps turn over sediments to maintain an environment that supports other marine life. Other animals, including fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, eat sea cucumber eggs, larvae and juveniles making them an important member of the food web. Many species eject Cuvierian tubules when threatened. These are very sticky and can be toxic or irritating to predators. They are a diverse group of flexible, elongated, worm-like organ- isms, with a leathery skin and gelatinous body, resembling cucumber (Bordbar, Anwar, Saari, 2011) Sea cucumbers are one of the marine animals which are important as human food source, particularly in some parts of Asia . Sea cucumbers, informally named as bà ªche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. In Holothuria leucospilota live specimens have reddish-purple until black and their color is converted to brownish-pink in alcohol. they have Cylindrical body and their abdomen is a little flat. The body wall of the sea cucumber lacks the rigidity found in other echinoderms because the calcareous plates (ossicles) that compose the skeletal system are very small and widely isolated. These ossicles are secreted by special cells called sclerocytes and are embedded in the outer layers of the skin. Ossicles are species-specific in structure and complexity, and can be used to identify species ( Lambert., 2005). Many bioactive compounds have been reported from different species of sea cucumber. A number of these compounds possess biological activity (Bryan et al., 1992; Villasin and Pomory, 2000) Some of sea cucumber species in Malaysia water are being used in traditional medicine to treat wound, eczema, arthritis or hypertension (Farouk et al., 2007). Sea cucumbers have been well recognized as a tonic and traditional remedy in Chinese and Malaysian literature for their effectiveness against hypertension, asthma, rheumatism, cuts and burns, impotence and constipation [18–23]. Several unique biological and pharmacological activities namely anti-angiogenic [24], anticancer [25], anticoagulant [26,27], anti-hypertension [28], anti-inflammatory [29–31], antimicrobial [32,33], antioxidant [34], antithrombotic [35,36], antitumor [37,38], and wound healing [39] have been ascribed to chemical compounds extracted from different sea cucumber species (Bordbar et al., 2011). These medicinal benefits and health functions of sea cucumbers can be attributed to the presence of appreciable amounts of bioactive compounds, especially the triterpene glycosides (saponins) [40–42], chondroitin sulfates [43], glycosaminoglycan [26,36], sulfated polysaccharides [44], sterols (glycosides and sulfates) [45], phenolics [46], peptides [47], cerberosides [48] and lectins [49–51]. Unlike bacteria, fungi and parasites, viruses have no cellular structure. when Viruses are outside live cells they behave like organic compounds and they are not able to replicate and clone independently. They do not have inner cytoplasmic organs such as ribosomes, mitochondria and lysosome. HIV-1 virus or human immunodeficiency virus is an RNA virus of the retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) in humans. According to the World Health Organization, 60 million people worldwide are infected with HIV and each day 5,700 lose their live because of this disease.( UNAIDS, 2010) HIV tends to infect and kill T lymphocytes that cause reduction and losing host cellular immunity and will make susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The presence of various materials, such as Liouvillosides A and B which are trisulfated triterpene glycosides and fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS), are causing appear anti-viral effects in extracts of these animals. The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide into new cells, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a persons life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries. Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of out-of-control growth of abnormal cells. Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Instead of dying, cancer cells continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells. Cancer cells can also invade (grow into) other tissues, something that normal cells cannot do. Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell. Cells become cancer cells because of damage to DNA. DNA is in every cell and directs all its actions. In a normal cell, when DNA gets damaged the cell either repairs the damage or the cell dies. In cancer cells, the damaged DNA is not repaired, but the cell doesn’t die like it should. Instead, this cell goes on making new cells that the body does not need. These new cells will all have the same damaged DNA as the first cell does. People can inherit damaged DNA, but most DNA damage is caused by mistakes that happen while the normal cell is reproducing or by something in our environment. Sometimes the cause of the DNA damage is something obvious, like cigarette smoking. But often no clear cause is found. Material and methods Sample collection All samples collected from 10-30 meters depth around Larak Island and they had transferred to shore with ice. Upon reaching the shore, samples were frozen using dry ice and transported to the laboratory. Samples kept in separated labeled plastic bags in frozen at -20 C until extraction. Extraction Sampels thawed with water and then mud, or sand, foreign particles remaining from the body surface and were washed away with tap water. Samples were cuted from both sides of the midline of the body. internal organs separated from body wall and they cleaned with tap water before extraction. Extracts were prepared following Naik et al. at first, fresh holothurians were rinsed and cut into small pieces. Then cut samples moved to Erlenmeyer with 1000 cc diethyl ether solvent. The sample was collected in diethyletter about 24 hours, the semi- polar and non- poplar extraction was produced. After solution filtered and evaporating diethyletter to dryness, at low pressure at 35- 40C by using Rota vapor. Then the sample put in methanol for 72 hours, The polar extraction was produced The polar compounds in the phase of methanol- aqueous extracts were separated. The concentrated methanol extracts was then dried to obtain crude semi-solid extracts. The crude extract was then weighted and percentages of extraction from sea cucumber were calculated. After 72 hours evaporating methanol to dryness, at low pressure at 40-45 C by using Rota vapor and at the end , extract changed to lyophilized powder by vacuum freeze dryer. Production of Pseudotyped Single-Cycle Replicable HIV Virions Single-cycle replicable HIV-1 (SCR HIV-1) virions were constructed by deleting a 2-kb segment within the Pol region of the HIV-1 genome from the pNL4-3 strain (provided by Dr. Navid Madani). Pseudotyped SCR HIV- 1 virions were produced by co-transfection of HEK293T cells with pmzNL4-3 (containing the mutated genome), psPAX2, and pMD2G plasmids obtained from Addgene ( (10, 11). The pmzNL4-3 plasmid encodes the HIV-1 full-length RNA, with packaging ability containing the above-mentioned deletion in the Pol region; the psPAX2 plasmid encodes HIV Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins, in addition to all the viral accessory proteins; and the pMD2G plasmid encodes the vesicular stomatitis virus surface glycoprotein (VSVG), which is necessary for virion assembly and the budding process. These pseudotyped virions are able to infect a broad spectrum of cells, even without the CD4 receptor. After co-transfection of the HEK293T cells with the  above-mentioned plasmids b y using the Polyfect reagent (Qiagen, Germany), supernatant containing the  virions was harvested at 24, 48, and 72 h. Virus stock was concentrated 20 times by ultracentrifugation, p24 load was quantified (HIV p24 ELISA, Biomerieux, France), and the stock was stored at -70 °C (10, 11) Cell lines The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)–infected cell line Hela and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells and Human carcinoma oral epidermoid cells (KB) (American Type Culture Collection) were cultured at 37 °C with 5% CO2 in RPMI1640 medium (Biosera, England) and DMEM (Biosera, England), respectively. The media were supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Biosera, England), 200 units/mL of penicillin G, and 80 µg/mL of streptomycin (Sigma, USA). XTT-Based Cytotoxicity Assay The cellular toxicity of methanol and diethyl ether extracts in HEK293T, Hela and KB cells were assessed using a cell proliferation XTT kit (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), as described previously (9). Briefly, cells were plated in triplicate in 96-well plates in the presence or absence of various concentrations of methanol and diethyl ether extracts. After incubation at 37 °C with 5% CO2 for 3 days, 50 ÃŽ ¼L of prepared XTT mixture was added to each well. The cells were incubated for an additional 4 h to allow the production of XTT formazan. Absorbance was measured using an ELISA plate reader (BioTek ELx800) at a test wavelength of 450 nm and a reference wavelength of 690 nm. Percent inhibition was calculated using the following formula: Inhibition (%) = [100 – (At/ As)] Ãâ€" 100, where As is the absorbance of the solvent and At, of the test sample, respectively. The cytotoxic concentration that resulted in a reduction of the number of viable cells by 50% (CC50) was calculate d from doseresponse curves. Replication assay Vesicular stomatitis virus glyco ­protein (VSVG)-SCR virions can infect Hela cells and complete their replication cycle by assembling of inactive virions. Hela cells (6Ãâ€"104) were seeded in each well of 24 well plates containing 250 ÃŽ ¼l of complete medium and infected with 400 ng P24 VSVG-SCR virions. Cells and virions were incubated together overnight and cells were then washed two times with pre-warmed 5% FBS supplemented DMEM. Complete medium (400 ÃŽ ¼l) was added into each well and cell supernatants were analyzed for p24 load after 48 hrs (HIV P24 ELISA, BIOMERIEUX). Result Antitumor effect of the sea cucumber extracts Evaluations of sea cucumber H. leucospilota extracts for potential anticancer activity on growth human cancer cell lines, Human carcinoma oral epidermoid cells (KB) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) were evaluated by XTT assay. Methanol digestive organs extract with 2.46 TI index (table 1), showed better anti-cancer effect than other extracts obtained from sea cucumber. Compared to untreated control was detected. The dose dependent decreasing in the percentage of viability of treated cancer cells comparing to controls was represented in the (Fig. 1A to D). As shown in (Fig. 1B), among the other extracts, only methanol digestive organs exhibited antiproliferative effects against the cancer cells. In addition this extract was rather less cytotoxic against HEK293T compared with other extracts. Bars represent means of triplicate determinations, and error bar indicate SD. Results were accepted to be significant at p Table-1- Inhibitory effects of sea cucumbers extracts on growth growth human cancer cell lines, Human carcinoma oral epidermoid cells (KB) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) Extracts IC50 CC50 TI (CC50/ IC50) KB HEK Methanol body wall 224.9  ± 1.33 281.0  ± 1.18 1.24 Methanol digestive organs 152.5  ± 1.29 375.4  ± 1.11 2.46 Methanol gonad 500 360.1  ± 1.75 0.72> Diethyl ether body wall 279.0  ± 1.17 284.9  ± 1.19 1.02 Diethyl ether digestive organs ~ 449.4  ± 2.51 444.2  ± 1.55 ~1.01 Diethyl ether gonad 367.1  ± 1.29 302.2  ± 1.12 0.82 The IC50 (inhibition concentration 50% of extract that caused inhibition cancerous KB cell line), CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration of the extracts on HEK) and TI (therapeutic index) of different extracts of sea cucumber by using XTT assay, mean  ± SD . Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of sea cucumber extracts on cancerous (KB) and normal (HEK293T) cells, was determined using the XTT assay (un- treated control (1  µl DMSO) cells) Effect of sea cucumber H. leucospilota extracts on KB and HEK293T cells. Internal organs extracts (50 mg/ml) highest antiproliferative effects against KB cells and don’t significant cytotoxic effects than other concentration. Values are mean  ± SD of three determinations. Anti-HIV activity of the sea cucumber extracts In this study first we evaluated the cytotoxic activity on hella cells of different concentration of each extracts with XTT assay. XTT assay appeared all extracts have substantial cytotoxic effect on host cell line. The antiviral activities of each extract are summarized in Table 2. We further determined whether the inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication of these extracts were dose-dependent. We infected hella cells with HIV-1 viruses and then treated the cells with each of the extracts at a concentration of 10  µg/ml to 1000  µg/ml fig 2A to F. None of the extracts showed significant inhibition of HIV-1 replication but the concentration of 100 µ g/ml methanol digestive organs, inhibit HIV-1 replication with less cytotoxic effect compared to other extract fig addition body wall extract, with 2.79 TI index has rather better antiviral activity than other extracts(table 2). We also included 0.1% DMSO as a negative control and nevirapine as a positive control in these experi ments. Bars represent means of triplicate determinations, and error bar indicate SD. Results were accepted to be significant at p Table-2- The IC50 (inhibition concentration 50% of extract that caused inhibition of viral replication in HIV-1), CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration of the extracts on host cells (Hela)) and TI (therapeutic index) of different extracts of sea cucumber Extracts IC50 CC50 TI (CC50/ IC50) Methanol body wall 35.89  ± 1.21 19.15  ± 1.45 0.53 Methanol digestive organs 57.61  ± 3.02 23.79 ± 1.67 0.41 Methanol gonad 337.60  ± 1.34 9.084  ± 1.15 0.02 Diethyl ether body wall 20.14  ± 1.16 56.27  ± 1.54 2.79 Diethyl ether digestive organs 37.01  ± 1.19 49.65  ± 1.53 1.34 Diethyl ether gonad 5.03  ± 1.90 5.11  ± 1.89 1.01 The average percentage of HIV-1 replication with extracts treatments based on three independent experiments. The percentage was considered as 100% when HIV-1 replication of DMSO sample reached to the peak. Instead, the rest of other samples with extracts treatments were calculated and converted into percentages based on DMSO and nevirapine used as a positive control in these experiments. The data were mean  ± SEM of three independent experiments.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

My Life is History :: Personal Narrative Writing

My Life is History Light reflected off his menacing scales. Sixty-five million years before grocery stores, and drive through ATMs, Tyrannosaurus Rex stomped the fields of Palmer Massachusetts. In the pale light of a brisk October night, the resurrected teeth and textured body of the ferocious beast again terrorized Palmer safely restrained by the possessive clutch of my chubby little fingers. It was not so much that the I loved dinosaurs, though I did and still do, more I was intrigued that there was more than just my lifetime in the history of the world. Though I knew the world through the narrow scope of ten years, the earth had been around for millions. From that small age I was seduced by the past. What or who stomped the earth before me was an all consuming question for me. I wanted to know about those who lived before me. I wanted to know what kinds of lives they lead, what they did and who they were. History was my life. In the metropolis of Palmer there are few stoplights and even fewer attractions to stop at. On my unfrequented street in a little farmhouse on seventy-six acres we got few stations. Public television beamed to me quenched my insatiable need for history. While my counterparts were absorbed with the, then novel, music video I was reaching back to play with the Egyptians as they built the pyramids. Most every night I could bask in the cathode rays of emperors and kings, peasants, popes, and even the occasional murderer. Sometimes at night, I would go outside after a particularly interesting show and stare at the sky. In the heavens I saw the same sky as Napoleon Bonapart. I could see the stars Socrates saw out the window of his cell the night before he was executed. I reclined on grass watered by the sweat Joan of Arc perspired as she was burned at the steak on May 30, 1431 in a Rouen marketplace at the age of nineteen. Though these thoughts may have been macabre for a young child, they gave me an intense connection with the past. They created in me the desire to know everyone who came before me because as their history was part of me. The strong connection with the past brought me to one realization a little too early. I realized at a young age that I was mortal and all the implications there of.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Gated Communities in Istanbul

The background Istanbul is one of the outstanding concern, Cultural, tourer and transit hubs in Europe every bit good as the Middle East which besides contributes 22 per cent of Turkey’s GDP with 17.8 per cent of the national population. ( 21 ) The economic activity is rooted geographically and historically as the instance with many planetary metropoliss. From the Ottoman period, Istanbul has been the major metropolis in term of societal moral force and economic activity. In The wake of the Second World War, the industrial capital throughout the patriot and develop mentalist clip with experiment of big inward migration. The rapid enlargement is chiefly through spreading outwardsgecekonducolonies near the mill on the traveling borders of Istanbul which displaced the manifestation of the aureate age of informal urbanisation. Whereas, with the debut of the Neoliberal scheme which started from the 1980s, it has entered into a new phase that the shot of nation’s integrating into supranational capitalist kineticss is focused on Istanbul. ( book ) At that period of clip, the luxury upper category residential country and globalising commercial infinites spread outwards of the metropolis ; Meanwhile,gecekonducolonies have con tinued to turn. Thus, the great disparity of income, wealth and power deepen in Istanbul as the city expressed in spacial segregations ( book ; keyder2005 ) It could reason that planetary capitalist economy is the beginning of centralisation and backdown for the form of growing. In the recent decennaries, Istanbul has been considered by Turkish capital and province as a supranational regional economic Centre, assisting Turkey to take a farther measure into internationalisation and planetary capitalist economy as the fiscal hub for the East and the West. ( ppt ) To implement the acceleration, the Istanbul Metropolitan Planning ( IMP ) was established by the JDP authorities. There are two indispensable purposes for the planning authorization ; the first is to deconcentrate the fabrication industry towards outskirts of the built-up country. The 2nd is to transform the cardinal metropolis towards finance services, up-market ingestion, so traveling the growing of up-market utilizations from the outskirts to the Centre. ( book ) These transmutation besides led of import functional alterations in the cardinal metropolis like Emine °S ? Which was the city’s oldest concern centre now lost its production and service maps but act as great touristic and cultural roles.17 The chief intervention for the spacial restructuring is through large-scale urban renovation which including the three big havens at Zeytinburnu, Haydarpasa and Galata are for trade centre. Meanwhile, the new bomber centre is located in the outer of both sides of the metropolis to suit the lower degree and more local commercial activity to guarantee the cardinal metropolis to be available for high degree concern sectors. The internationalized utilizations for renovation of cardinal metropolis proceed partially on empty land in the cardinal metropolis which owned by the public authorization. At the same clip, the IMP has seen a ‘rent gap’ in rundown residential countries with hapless dwellers so in the interior metropolis, these countries are targeted as major planned regeneration undertakings. First, be aftering in the country where the historic edifices in metropolis centre that occupied by the cultural minority of all categories who were expelled in the 1920s from the state by the nationalist government. Second, be aftering in the country where thegecekonducolonies built by immigrants in the past 50 old ages which means they are composed to travel out. Before, these dwellers who work in these countries are largely employed in informal service sectors and small-scale economic improvisation in the cardinal metropolis. Even more worse, because of the planetary crisis the unskilled occupat ions are difficult to happen for support, the impairment of poorness happens with the cultural and societal background of recent migrators like Kurdish migrators, the Roma population of Sulukule, African refugees. Therefore, without rubric to the land, these people are unable to take part in the increasing market-oriented lodging economic system. ( rhenium ) The menace is non merely for the income polarisationa?† a?- but besides it affected societal, cultural, and spacial exclusion and possibly a lasting sub-proletariat. ( Re ) For illustration, in recent regeneration undertaking in the Sulukule territory which is one of the oldest Roma vicinities been occupied by Anatolian Gypsies since Byzantine times will replace the edifice with Ottoman manner Villa. It is the MHA led undertaking that propose a 100 edifice are to be demolished with all 620 the renters are evicted. The two options is either to purchase new flat at a high monetary value or purchase societal lodging units in the outskirts of the metropolis at below- market rates but it is 45km off, therefore it become truly dearly-won and hard to entree to employment in the metropolis centre. The other similar regeneration projectikucukcekmece, to bring forth tremendous residential developments which close to a new planned commercial growing country in the outer West of the Istanbul. The MHA has constructed a immense increased denseness of 100,000 lodging unites with ingestion infinite. ( book ) However, the MHA demolished old 2000 homesteader colonies which move the proprietors to societal lodging in less valuable countries. The poorest tenants were neglect when they couldn’t pay the monetary value for the provided units. ? ? ? Thegecekonducolonies are consolidated. The Mass Housing Administration participated in this development by concept high-rise residential units for low income groups in outskirts of the metropolis and some of the Original occupants could go forth the old vicinity and take for middle-class residential developments. Alliances happened for the last 15 old ages and profited from the development. As a consequence, the metropolis could stop up with an tremendous bubble of extra existent estate ( 49 ) ? ? ? ? ? In Istanbul there are more than half illegally edifices where big population growing was accommodated on these productions of colonies. For the terminal of populism it demonstrated that land had eventually become a commodityiREi?†°which of course become favourable for guess as more and more land was pulled into the market sphere. However, the planetary moving ridge of bad investing in these tremendous developments make up one's minding the spacial enlargement of the urban metropolis. ( 49 ) In the 1980s, the earlier stage of the planetary vision was chiefly driven by the Turkish beginning pudding stone capital. The new unit of ammunition of urban globalisation is non merely driven by existent estate but besides a cultural undertaking. However, it could still reason that the renovation docket to turn metropolis infinites into the profitable Assets ; meanwhile, to accommodate the demands of spread outing wealth or for touristry, for commercial utilizations. ( 49 ) The planetary Investors are attracted to the quickly increased consumer demand for high-quality lodging, commercial apace and cultural touristry in the most profitable country. ? ? ? ? As a consequence, It can be seen in a 5.5 km2 big renovation undertaking, maestro planned by Zaha Hadid, in the Kartal territory along the Marmara shore which hosts 100 industrial mill. The former Mayor of Kartal had indicated the program to pull US $ 5 billion from planetary investors to develop a yacht marina accommodating 1,000 boats with Hotels, place and residential country. These sort of transmutation rely on the confederation of national and local political purpose and economic involvements, moreover it is besides depended on the graduated table and range with planetary capital entered the metropolis. ( 49 ) The comparative economic alteration is the world that modern urban developments have homogenized edifice signifiers. The standardisation has progressed because of the edifice can be globally traded which are every bit the same in all topographic points. The societal effects of standardisation is the consequence of homogeneousness in reinforced signifier affects segregation it is efficient to build full communities destined for certain societal groups. 12 Gated communities appeared in Turkey in the 1980s as of import undertaking of urban transmutation and enlargement in the metropolis which driven by an progressively powerful existent estate market and accepted by political relations and planning. This advancement is non merely altering urban and architectural forms in the metropolis but besides the deduction on the societal and economic constructions at the vicinity degree. ( web ) For illustration Ge °Ã¢â‚¬ ¡te »Ã‚ µk, as a innovator of this manner of development in the 1990s existent estate developers discovered the potency for the up market lodging development. Therefore, more than 30 gated communities have been built closly. As a consequence, the population increases from 1,500 in 1993 to about 20,000 in 2008 with increasing land value. ( ) The country has been transformed into an island among islands with necessary web of economic, societal brushs which connect Ge °Ã¢â‚¬ ¡te »Ã‚ µk’s apparently the fragment into an incorporate economic whole.i5i?†°However, the gated communities still consequence on crystallisation of the class-based spacial segregation. Istanbul is acknowledged that has a proper system of public conveyance constitutes to counter the immense menace to mobility by planned expresswaies, widened roads and introduced new traffic lanes. However, it could make farther divisions and destruct the city’s delicate vicinity construction. The original street forms of theGecekonduand yap-sat territories, with their complex societal and micro-economic constructions, and lively street activities are being replaced by the new vicinities which dwelling of monolithic blocks with high-rise flat towers. Besides, a big Numberss of diverse population are forced to go considerable distances for plants and even basic demands that farther consequence on the mobility on all degrees.